The myth of the ‘peaceful’ warrior

Apache warriors, armed and ready to fight, with Geronimo on right.

By , Warrior Publications - 13. December 2013

A warrior is a person who prepares for and engages in warfare or fighting, not for personal gain but in the interests of his or her community. A warrior defends their people, territory, and way of life. These attributes distinguish a warrior from those who fight for personal motivations, such as money or power. Ideals such as sacrifice, courage, loyalty, and honour are often associated with the warrior.

I believe most Natives would agree with this description of the warrior, and would acknowledge that not only were warriors a vital part of our cultures, but that they also served an important military function in defence of land and people. Some of our greatest heroes as Native peoples are warriors who engaged in armed anti-colonial resistance, such as Pontiac, Tecumseh, Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse, Geronimo, Cochise, etc.

ECOTERRA International Investigation

PROLOGUE: The PROBLEM – REACTION – SOLUTION model is used again by neo-colonial, fascist forces under western command and control structures to militarise Africa further.
Elephant and rhino slaughter is a win-win-win situation for the F-UK-US military-industrial complex, while the Elephants had and still have to die to foster this sick agenda.

DEAD POACHER – as seen by colonialist

By Venatrix Fulmen (*), 01. December 2013

UPDATE – 20. Dec. 2013 TANZANIA:

Four ministers removed from their posts
20.Dec. 2014

Investigations into U.S.American funded OPERATION TOKOMEZA revealed horrendous acts, such as raping, theft and many others that resulted into deaths of innocent civilians, mostly pastoralists, during crazy "anti-poaching"-drives carried out by the armed forces and other security personnel.

The minister for Natural Resources and Tourism Hon. Ambassador Khamis Kagasheki has resigned his ministerial post, citing pressure from a cross section of Members of Parliament, who accused him of mishandling 'Operation Tokomeza.'

Earlier, the legislators had called on Prime Minister, Mizengo Pinda, to resign for failure to take appropriate measure against four ministers— Natural Resources and Tourism minister, Ambassador Khamis; Minister of Home Affairs, Emmanuel Nchimbi; and Minister of Defence and National Service, Shamsi Vuai Nahodha.

This came after a special investigative report on the implementation of the operation revealed horrendous acts, such as raping, theft and many others that resulted into deaths to innocent civilians mostly pastoralists.

Indonesian police use shootings, killings, beatings, arrests on West Papuan independence rallies

Peaceful WP demonstration Jaypura

Indonesian police have opened fire on peaceful protesters in Jayapura, with at least four gunshot wounds and one death.

West Papuan activists and families have been forced to flee to the jungle for safety. Indonesian security forces are conducting scores of raids, sweeps and offensives against West Papuan civilians.

The attacks are happening during the visit of National Police Chief General Sutarman with over 200 people arrested across West Papua.

Journalists have also been attacked by Indonesian police.

The Indonesian Police chief says any plans to free Papua from Indonesia won't be tolerated, including Flag raising ceremonies on the West Papuan national Day, December 1st.

Rallies for independence also were launched across West Papua to raise Morningstar Flag.

Ex-Slave turned Slavers and their Foreign Masters are together in Joint Genocide against the First Peoples.

Right in the heart of the San territory the secret fracking operations create havoc.

By ECOTERRA International - 20. November 2013

The migrating Tswana, a Bantu speaking people from West Africa invaded the lands of the Khoisan-speaking First Nations of Southern Africa already around 2,000 years ago, bringing with them agriculture as well as mainly cattle and some goats as their domestic livestock, which had been the lifelines for their expansionist success. While at first living in harmony with the aboriginal people, the San or Bushmen, whom they call Basarwa and who remained steadfast in their hunter-gatherer culture, the SeTswana speaking BaTswana established for the first time territories in the 14th century based on an internal clan feud with three of their nine lineages evolving and claiming territory over the fertile agricultural and lush range-lands – thus pushing the Khoisan-speaking, aboriginal San to the less viable zones.

UPDATE 02. May 2020: ... and the bad Karma followed: Olympic Games 2020 in Japan cancelled (maybe going ahead in 2021)

PROLOGUE: While the world is being detracted by the most likely geo-engineered Philippine HyperTyphoon Haiyan, which killed at least 10,000 and made survivors ‘walking around like zombies’ in the former U.S.colony and today’s USAmerican dependent (and conveniently the disaster-storm then went to North-East Vietnam), the current operations at the (geo-engineered?) tsunami-damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan have developed into an extremely dangerous stage, which requires world-attention and security measures.
Or shall all these other events also avert global attention just from the fact that the Iran Nuclear Programme Deal failed due to a French Block:with a new Saudi-French Alliance emerging or put the blinkers on for Nov. 13 and its first signs?
ECOTERRA Intl. already warned many times – most intensively on 09. Sept. 2013 and most recently on 05. Nov. 2013, about the Fukushima dangers, while since a year even scientists are arrested in Japan to shut critical voices out, while Imperial Princess Takamado of Japan and her team walked away with their money for having secured the in-transparent and likely corrupted 2020 Olympic games bid. Bad Karma will follow.

ECOTERRA International Investigation

We’re In The Most Dangerous Moment Since the Cuban Missile Crisis

Radioactive cloud dispersion from Fukushima

By George Washington - 08. November 2013

Scientists Warn of Extreme Risk

We’ve long said that the greatest short-term threat to humanity is from the fuel pools at Fukushima.

The Japanese nuclear agency recently green-lighted the removal of the spent fuel rods from Fukushima reactor 4′s spent fuel pool. The operation has begun.

The head of the U.S. Department of Energy correctly notes:

The success of the cleanup also has global significance. So we all have a direct interest in seeing that the next steps are taken well, efficiently and safely.

If one of the pools collapsed or caught fire, it could have severe adverse impacts not only on Japan … but the rest of the world, including the United States.

Obituary: Günther Peter (born 1947), died on 24. Oct. 2013

Son of animal-loving teacher became internationally recognized animal protection activist

Günther Peter - martyr of the animal rights movement 

By team (*) - 24. October 2013

Günther Peter was born on August 28, 1947 as the son of a nature-conscious teacher and began to care for the animals and nature already as a child. He studied engineering but was with his soul always with the animals, especially in the wilderness and under water, since he also became an avid scuba diver. With these traits Günther Peter started to make underwater films.

It was the year1981, which changed for Günther Peter everything in life. He had to witness and see the almost unimaginable horror on Bali and what happened there to the sea turtles: After being caught, the gentle sea-creatures were cut up and dismembered while still alive. The animals only could groan during the torment – scenes that traumatize. While everyone looked the other side – only one person did not and Günther Peter changed his life.

Mi'kmaq Warrior shot with rubber bullet by RCMP - risks losing his leg after protecting woman.

RCMP and unidentified snipers attack Mi'kmaq women and elderly

By Brenda Norrell - Censored News - 21 Oct. 2013

A Miq'mak Warrior Tyson Peters risks losing his leg today after being shot with a rubber bullet when police and snipers attacked Mi'qmak in Elsipogtog, New Brunswick province of Canada.

The Royal Canadian Mounte Police (RCMP) said only bean bags were shot at Mi'kmaq in the anti-fracking camp, but reporter Miles Howe was there. Howe said two people were shot with rubber bullets during the pre-dawn raid by police and unidentified snipers.

Howe reported, "It has taken three days, but sadly there is now the potential of a very serious injury arising from last Thursday's early morning RCMP attack on the anti-shale gas encampment that occurred on a piece of Crown land adjacent to highway 134.

Tyson Peters, a member of the Mi'kmaq Warriors Society, today appeared at a community meeting in Elsipogtog using two friends for support. His left leg was heavily bandaged. He tells the Halifax Media Co-op that after being shot in the leg by a 'rubber bullet' shotgun blast, fired by an RCMP officer at close range, there is extensive internal bleeding in his leg. Doctors have advised him that they will know better tomorrow whether the leg will require amputation." Read article:

Global support poured in to Censored News for Mi'kmaq who were attacked by Canadian police and military forces with snipers, police dogs and pepper spray.


Fukushima - Daiichi Nuclear Reactor disaster

- nor an imperialist Princess

An ECOTERRA International Investigation - 07. September 2013

If today’s vote for the Olympics will go to Tokyo, we know that the International Olympic Committee is as corrupt as the International Whaling Commission or the Nuclear Power Mafia. (Update: Yes, it did!)

But first of all: The Japanese Government is lying to the world every day – and nobody can trust them.

They are lying about their whaling programme, they are lying about the nuclear disaster, which they not only are responsible for but refuse to address appropriately, and they are lying about the slaughter of the dolphins. Their government-backed organized criminals steal Tuna from the Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean and allow contaminated fish from their radiating waters to be canned in Thailand for export to the developing nations from where they steal the clean fish. Meanwhile the Japanese Government has made sweeping changes to their constitution, reverting their country’s military back to the WWII statutes of the imperialists, but this time as vassals and under the command of today’s global aggressor: the USA, who already holds another bidder for the Olympics 2020 in their grip: Neo-Fascist Turkey.

The dangers are known since decades!

Declassified Intelligence Document:

"Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Radiation

(Radiowaves and Microwaves)

Eurasian Communist Countries"

The following document shows that much science was done and many biological impacts of RF and MW were found very early worldwide.

The point should not be that these are old studies, but that these types of findings continued for decades afterwards, and continue today - even as the worldwide wireless radiation experiment on all living things continues at breakneck speed.

The real cause behind global mass poisoning and the downfall of modern civilization

Homo sapiens is also the only species that steals breastmilk from another mammal.

By Mike Adams - NN - 02. August 2013

There are over five thousand species of mammals on planet Earth, but only one of them is insane. It also turns out there is only one species of mammal that intentionally poisons itself (and its children) by injecting toxic, neuro-damaging chemicals into most members of the species. That species is, of course, homo sapiens.

If you look around the planet these days, you see tens of thousands of species of mammals, birds, reptiles and even insects. Five things all these have in common is:

1) None of them eat processed foods. They innately eat raw, unprocessed, uncooked foods from nature.

2) None of them take prescription medications.

3) None of them inject their offspring with toxic vaccines laced with hidden chemicals.

4) None of them practice mechanized chemical agriculture / monoculture.

5) None of them live in delusional, artificial worlds of TV or the internet.

How the Myth of Self-interest Caused the Global Crisis

Does evolution teach us something important about economics and public policy?

Modern homo economicus is our all hostis humani generis Flickr/Frits Ahlefeldt-Laurvig

The Ideology of Self-interest Caused the Financial Crash. We Need a New Economic Paradigm

By Mark van Vugt and Michael Price - 10. July 2013

A friend of mine worked as a human resources manager in the banking industry in the Netherlands at the start of the 21st century. This was during the glory years when the banks transformed from places where you could protect your personal savings into investment banks with their portfolios of shares, derivates, bonds, and real estate. Investment bankers made tons of money and it was my friend’s job to hand out the annual bonuses.

Our Planet Is Exploding With Ocean Dead Zones

A dead zone, shown in red, forms each summer in the Gulf of Mexico. Fish and shellfish either leave the oxygen-depleted waters or die, resulting in losses to commercial and sports fisheries. Gulf of Mexico Dead Zone - NOAA

By Dina Spector - 26. June 2013

The world's oceans are exploding with dead zones, regions where the water is so depleted of oxygen that fish and other sea life that live near the bottom cannot survive.

Dead zones are human-caused. They occur when crop fertilizer and cow poop, containing high levels of nitrogen and phosphorous, get washed into streams and rivers and out to the ocean.

The nutrient-rich farm runoff triggers huge algae blooms. When the algae dies, it sinks down to the bottom of the water. Bacteria living in the water decompose the dead algae, and use up the oxygen. Without enough oxygen in the water, fish and shellfish suffocate and die.

The number and size of marine dead zones has doubled each decade since the 1960s, mostly due to agricultural pollution, according to study published in the journal Science. They are concentrated on the East coast of the U.S. and Europe.

Declines in oxygen are associated with an expanded use of industrial nitrogen fertilizer, especially in the 1960s and 1970s. The impacts of these fertilizers, however, were not observed until at least a decade later.

In 2008, dead zones affected more than 245,000 square kilometers of the planet's ocean, an area approximately the size of the United Kingdom.

Red circles show the location and size of marine dead zones worldwide. Black dots indicated observed dead zones, but their size is not known. Dead Zones NASA

This summer, researchers predict that the the Gulf of Mexico will be strangled by one of the largest dead zones on record.

The oxygen-deprived area could cover an area roughly the size of New Jersey, according to a statement from Michigan University.

Floods across the Midwest are blamed for this year's potentially record-breaking dead zone, which shoot nitrogen-rich freshwater from the Mississippi River into the Gulf of Mexico. The amount of nitrogen entering the Mississippi has jumped 300% since the 1960s, regardless of especially heavy rains this spring.

Dead are zones are not visible - you can't see a decrease in oxygen - but their existence endangers all marine life on the seabed, and therefore, the commercial fisheries that depend on creatures like fish, clams, and shrimp to stay in business.



For a Future that Won’t Destroy Life on Earth, Look to the Global Indigenous Uprising

Melina Laboucan-Massimo stands next to logs from clearcuts at a proposed tar sands site north of Fort McMurray, northern Alberta, Canada. Photo by Jiri Rezac.


Idle No More is the latest incarnation of an age-old movement for life that doesn't depend on infinite extraction and growth. Now, armed with Twitter and Facebook, once-isolated groups from Canada to South America are exchanging resources and support like never before.

This power manifests in movements like Idle No More, which swept Canada last December and ignited a wave of solidarity on nearly every continent. Laboucan-Massimo was amazed—and hopeful. Triggered initially by legislation that eroded treaty rights and removed protection for almost all of Canada’s rivers—clearing the way for unprecedented fossil fuel extraction—Idle No More drew thousands into the streets. In a curious blend of ancient and high-tech, images of indigenous protesters in traditional regalia popped up on news feeds all over the world.

A history of resistance

To outsiders, it might seem that Idle No More materialized spontaneously, that it sprang into being fully formed. It builds, however, on a long history of resistance to colonialism that began when Europeans first washed up on these shores. Now, armed with Twitter and Facebook, once-isolated movements from Canada to South America are exchanging knowledge, resources, and support like never before.

"When you destroy the earth, you destroy yourself,” says Melina Laboucan-Massimo. This is “the common thread in indigenous people all over the world.”

Idle No More is one of what Subcomandante Marcos, the masked prophet of the Mexican Zapatistas, called “pockets of resistance,” which are “as numerous as the forms of resistance themselves.” The Zapatistas are part of a wave of indigenous organizing that crested in South America in the 1990s, coinciding with the 500th anniversary of European conquest—most effectively in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Mexico. Certain threads connect what might otherwise be isolated uprisings: They’re largely nonviolent, structurally decentralized, they seek common cause with non-natives, and they are deeply, spiritually rooted in the land.

The connections among indigenous organizers have strengthened through both a shared colonial history and a shared threat—namely, the neoliberal economic policies of deregulation, privatization, and social spending cuts exemplified by the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the World Trade Organization. Indigenous organizers see these agreements as nothing more than the old colonial scramble for wealth at the expense of the natives. In a 1997 piece in Le Monde Diplomatique, Marcos called neoliberalism “the totalitarian extension of the logic of the finance markets to all aspects of life,” resulting in “the exclusion of all persons who are of no use to the new economy.” Many indigenous leaders charge that the policies implemented through organizations like the World Bank and the IMF prioritize corporations over communities and further concentrate power in the hands of a few.

Uprising in Ecuador

The mid-1990s saw a massive expansion of such policies—and with it, an expansion of resistance, particularly in countries with significant indigenous populations. In 1990, CONAIE, the Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador, staged a massive, nonviolent levantamiento—an uprising—flooding the streets of Quito, blocking roads and effectively shutting down the country. Entire families walked for days to reach the capital to demand land rights, fair prices for agrarian goods, and recognition of Ecuador as a plurinational state, made up of multiple, equally legitimate nations. In the end it forced renegotiation of policy and created unprecedented indigenous representation in government; many hailed CONAIE’s success as a model for organizing everywhere.

CONAIE’s slogan, “Nothing just for Indians,” invited participation from non-indigenous allies around larger questions of inequality and political representation, creating a political space that was big and inclusive enough for everyone. Dr. Maria Elena Garcia, who studies these movements at the University of Washington, says that non-indigenous support has been “crucial” for success across the board. In the case of CONAIE, she says, there came a tipping point when “most Ecuadorians … said, ‘Enough. This organization is speaking for us.’”

The Zapatista Army

Meanwhile, in Mexico, the Zapatista movement was busy building a different kind of revolution. On January 1, 1994, the Zapatista Army took its place on the international stage. It was day one of NAFTA, which Subcomandante Marcos called “a death sentence to the indigenous ethnicities of Mexico.”

Idle No More clearly exists in the Zapatista tradition, but it goes further in incorporating the language of climate justice. In December as many as 50,000 masked Mayan Zapatistas marched into cities across Chiapas. Differing from the 1994 armed indigenous uprising, this one was done in complete silence.

More than any other movement, they linked local issues of cultural marginalization, racism, and inequality to global economic systems and prophesied a new movement of resistance. The media-savvy revolutionaries used their most potent weapon—words—and the still-new Internet to advocate a new world built on diversity as the basis for ecological and political survival. Transnational from the beginning, the Zapatistas made common cause with “pockets of resistance” everywhere.

Then, a curious change occurred: for nearly 10 years following their initial insurgency, the Zapatistas maintained a self-imposed silence. The world heard little from Marcos, but the autonomous communities in Chiapas were very much alive. They had turned inward, building independent governments, schools, and clinics. As journalist and author Naomi Klein observed, “These free spaces, born of reclaimed land, communal agriculture, resistance to privatization, will eventually create counter-powers to the state simply by existing as alternatives.” Embodying, here and now, the society they seek to create is a powerful manifesto; for those who cared to listen, their silence spoke volumes.

Victory in Bolivia

Most of these movements have used nonviolent tactics, including blockades, occupations of public space, and mass marches—combined with traditional political work—to varying degrees of success. In Bolivia these tactics yielded an extraordinary outcome: the election of Evo Morales, in 2005, as Bolivia’s first indigenous head of state.

Five years later, Morales convened 30,000 international delegates for the World People’s Conference on Climate Change and the Rights of Mother Earth. A response to the repeated failure of international climate negotiations, the gathering was rooted in an indigenous worldview that recognized Mother Earth as a living being, entitled to her own inalienable rights.

The resulting declaration placed blame unequivocally on the capitalist system that has “imposed on us a logic of competition, progress, and limitless growth.” This unrestrained growth, the declaration says, transforms “everything into commodities: water, earth, the human genome, ancestral cultures, biodiversity, justice, ethics, the rights of peoples, and life itself.” Significantly, the declaration also extended the analysis of colonialism to include climate change—calling for “decolonization of the atmosphere”—but it rejected market-based solutions like carbon trading. It’s a holistic analysis that links colonialism, climate change, and capital, a manifesto for what has come to be called “climate justice.”

Idle No More

Fast forward to December 2012, and two things happened: The Zapatistas staged simultaneous marches in five cities, marking a resurgence of their public activism. Anywhere from 10,000–50,000 masked marchers filled the streets in complete silence. The march was timed to coincide with the end of the Mayan calendar—and the beginning of a new, more hopeful era—and demonstrated the Zapatistas’ commitment to the indigenous cosmology of their ancestors.

That same month, a continent away, Idle No More emerged on the scene. While it began as a reaction to two specific bills in Parliament, it has gained strength and momentum in opposition to the network of proposed pipelines that will crisscross North America, pumping tar sands oil from Alberta to refineries and ports in Canada and the U.S. These pipelines will cross national, tribal, state, and ethnic boundaries and raise a multitude of issues—including water quality, land rights, and climate change. The campaign to stop their construction is already unifying natives and non-natives in unprecedented ways.

Dr. Garcia, whose own ancestors are indigenous, believes that indigenous movements offer something vital: hope, and what she calls “the importance of the imaginary. Of imagining a different world—imagining a different way of being in the world.”

“We’re a land-based people, but it goes further than that. It’s a worldview. When you destroy the earth, you destroy yourself,” says Melina Laboucan-Massimo. This is “the common thread in indigenous people all over the world.”


Don't Let the Apocalypse Get You Down

The climate crisis is spinning out of control, and the gap between the rich and poor continues grow unabated. It’s time to let the radical uncertainty of this moment enlarge our sense of possibility.

It is this thread that goes to the heart of our global ecological crisis. While indigenous cultures differ widely from one another, what they collectively present is an alternative relationship—to the earth, to its resources, and to each other—a relationship based not on domination but on reciprocity. Any movement that seeks to create deep, lasting social change—to address not only climate change but endemic racism and social inequality—must confront our colonial identity and, by extension, this broken relationship.

Laboucan-Massimo has spent a great deal of time abroad, studying indigenous movements from Latin America to New Zealand and Australia, feeling the full weight of their shared history under colonialism. These days, though, she’s more likely to be on the road, educating, organizing, and building solidarity among natives and non-natives. It was understanding the connections between movements, she says, that gave her “all the more fervor to come back and continue to do the work here.”

Recently, she traveled from Alberta  to the National Mall in Washington, D.C., where she and her elders stood at the forefront of the largest climate change rally in history. And she’ll keep organizing, armed with a smartphone, supported by a growing network of allies from Idle No More and beyond, connected in every possible way to the rest of the world.

(*) Kristin Moe wrote this article for Love and the Apocalypse, the Summer 2013 issue of YES! Magazine. Kristin is a writer, farmer, and graduate of the Salt Institute for Documentary Studies. She writes about climate justice, grassroots movements, and social change.



  • Naomi Klein speaks with writer, spoken-word artist, and indigenous academic Leanne Betasamosake Simpson about “extractivism,” why it’s important to talk about memories of the land, and what’s next for Idle No More.

  • “Band of Sisters” shows why a humble group of women fell under Vatican investigation for seeing the causes—not just the symptoms—of injustice.

  • Motivated by ancient traditions of female leadership as well as their need for improved legal rights, First Nations women are stepping to the forefront of the Idle No More movement.

PROLOGUE: Indigenous Peopls th world over MUST refuse to be the Guiea Pigs of the vaccine Mafia.

ECOTERRA International - Investigation

- pls spread this wide and far and especially the renewed plea by the parents for help 

Revealed Government Documents Show 
Vaccine Injured Children in Small African Village Used Like Lab Rats

Vaccine-damaged, paralysed child from Gauro / Chad after forced MenAfrivac injection without parental consent.

By  - 19. May 2013

Indigenous People’s Children vaccinated in Africa were severely harmed by vaccines.

In December 2012, vaccine tragedy hit the small village of Gouro, Chad, Africa, situated on the edge of the Sahara Desert. Five hundred children were locked into their school, threatened that if they did not agree to being force-vaccinated with a meningitis A vaccine, they would receive no further education.

These children were vaccinated without their parents’ knowledge. This vaccine was an unlicensed product still going through the third and fourth phases of testing.

- see also the chronological report HERE – how it happened,
and get the full picture HERE - incl. investigation by ICP at the UN HQ.

The Enemy Inside: Rhino's Protectors Sometimes Aid Poachers

The highly militarized deterrent built up by Lewa - even using bloodhounds bred for hunting slaves in the USA - hasn't worked to protect the precious wildlife.

By  - 14. May 2013

It says a lot about the state of the war against poachers in Africa that the Lewa Conservancy, a private sanctuary in Kenya with 12 percent of the country's rhinos, recently appointed a CEO who has never studied zoology or biology. Instead, Mike Watson is an ex-captain in the British army.

His training has already come in handy. Take, for instance, a visit to a crime scene earlier this year: a rhino carcass splayed out in the mud.

Watson holds a black-and-white photo, a kind of rhino mug shot. Kenya has only about 1,000 rhinos, and each one is branded with a distinct pattern of ear notches and registered in a countrywide database. Watson is able to use the photo to identify the dead creature. His name is Arthur.

Animal Rights, Imperialism and Indigenous Hunting

Keesta had thrown the harpoon, and the whale had accepted it, had grabbed and held onto the harpoon according to the agreement they had made through prayers and petitions. Harmony prevailed, whale and whaler were one. (Umeek, Richard Atleo as quoted in Coté, 32)

By  - 18. April 2013

Western society has found it necessary to create specific ‘animal rights’ as a response to its treatment of animals, while most indigenous peoples have always been aware of the fact that animals, like humans, are sentient beings which should be respected.

Many animal rights movements inherently separate animals from humans and see animals as scarce resources which need protection and management, while many indigenous people will argue that animals and humans cannot be separated and it is their treatment which affects their presence.

Such indigenous groups will argue that in the hunt, an animal will only offer you its body as a gift if the correct treatment has been given to them, while western society and animal rights groups see hunting as a purely violent, irrational and ‘primitive’ practice.

Unfortunately, many indigenous voices remain unheard or are discarded as ‘un-scientific’ and thus worthless, and this means that it is often outside policy-makers, who have little, if any, understanding of their culture that make decisions concerning hunting practices.