A traditional open-sky garden is situated next to an agrivoltaics system, in which plants are grown under solar photovoltaic panels. The study was conducted at the Biosphere 2, which can be seen in the background. By Ann R. Kreilkamp - 16. November 2021

I saw this headline a few days ago:

Indiana Will Be Home to Largest Solar Farm in the U.S. Covering 13,000 Acres

(which is a bit a hyped spin by the Israel-based company attracting the investors), but nevertheless:

It made me wonder, why not stack functions, grow food under the solar panels? It’s happening elsewhere, and even has a name: AGRIVOLTAICS.

“Stack functions” is a permaculture principle referred to in my exopermaculture posts.

What is permaculture? PERMACULTURE IS RELATIONSHIPS. To one who practices permaculture, everything is related, above to below, inside to outside. This truth is in stark contrast to the disease of isolation/separation that, thanks to the scientistic “method” of analysis without synthesis, has thoroughly infiltrated our culture to the point where, as Mattias Desmet says, a hypnotic Covid spell has been successfully cast over billions of lonely, chronically anxious, disconnected souls by drumming out an endless blaring barage of fear, fearF.E.A.R. (False Evidence Appearing Real) porn.

Permaculture. Permanent culture. Not the fake, incessant “progress” we were indoctrinated to aspire to, by lording over both nature and other human beings.

Permaculture. Permanent. Regenerative. The way nature herself works,  where “all waste is food.” Trees take in CO2 and breathe out O2. Animals (including humans) breathe in O2 and breathe out CO2. We need each other. Not just within species, but across species.

The patterns of lung and tree are essentially identical, and mirror, for example, the branching of a river. Nature’s designs are “fractal.” Nature knows what she’s doing.

In nature’s world, we need each other. We are inextricably connected to all embodied beings, on all levels.

Which is what Masanobu Fukuoko (born 1914) in Japan discovered, when he was 25, and decided to leave his career as a research scientist, return to his family farm, and learn from nature. The results are documented philosophically in his 1978 book “One Straw Revolution.”

A few quotes:

Permaculture takes advantage of nature’s ways to “stack functions” deliberately as in, for example, this Fruit Tree Guild.

Another example of stacking is this simple structure:


Last night, we at Green Acres Permaculture Village gathered for a short meeting, wherein I mentioned that we’re going to receive six visitors on Thursday, coming in sets of two, at different hours, from near and far away. They all want to know how we are doing it. How to live a connected life, not just with each other, but with the earth under our feet. Our tiny, suburban, retrofit, intergenerational template for a new, interconnected culture — “growing community from the ground up” — has been an object of contemplation by others all along — as a sort of curiosity. But:

Ever since the Covid Con cast its poisoned spell over the world, our way of living and thinking and learning has become more and more compelling to more and more people. At this point, I’d say we average at least three “tours” each month, as people, near and far, begin to realize that the only way we are going to “defeat” the “virus” is to re-member our everlasting interrelationship with both each other and the whole of embodied life.

Joseph, one of our young podmates, mentioned that he would like to see a Green Acres podcast. I suggested that he spearhead it. “Gladly” he replied. Another young podmate, Aya, loved the idea, and added that all her friends want to live like we do, that the millennial generation know that this is what is needed. GOOD!

P.S. Both of these young ones are new arrivals, within the past three months. May they, may we all, both near and far, live long and prosper!


Ann R. Kreilkamp - Sovereign Soul at One with All - ARCHIVES


Agrivoltaics Proves Mutually Beneficial Across Food, Water, Energy Nexus

A paper published in Nature Sustainability presents the first field-data assessment of outcomes of a multi-year study of agrivoltaics in dryland regions led by UA geographer Greg Barron-Gafford.

By Stacy Pigott, University Communications - 02. September 2019

These results of a new UA-led study suggest that the novel co-location of agriculture and solar photovoltaic arrays could have synergistic effects that support the production of ecosystem services such as crop production, local climate regulation, water c
These results of a new UA-led study suggest that the novel co-location of agriculture and solar photovoltaic arrays could have synergistic effects that support the production of ecosystem services such as crop production, local climate regulation, water conservation and renewable energy production.


Building resilience in renewable energy and food production is a fundamental challenge in today's changing world, especially in regions susceptible to heat and drought. Agrivoltaics, the co-locating of agriculture and solar photovoltaic panels, offers a possible solution, with new University of Arizona-led research reporting positive impacts on food production, water savings and the efficiency of electricity production.

Agrivoltaics, also known as solar sharing, is an idea that has been gaining traction in recent years; however, few studies have monitored all aspects of the associated food, energy and water systems, and none have focused on dryland areas – regions that experience food production challenges and water shortages, but have an overabundance of sun energy.

“Many of us want more renewable energy, but where do you put all of those panels? As solar installations grow, they tend to be out on the edges of cities, and this is historically where we have already been growing our food,” said Greg Barron-Gafford, an associate professor in the School of Geography and Development and lead author on the paper that was published today in Nature Sustainability.

recent high-profile study in Nature found that current croplands are the “land covers with the greatest solar PV power potential” based on an extensive analysis of incoming sunlight, air temperature and relative humidity.

“So which land use do you prefer – food or energy production? This challenge strikes right at the intersection of human-environment connections, and that is where geographers shine!" said Barron-Gafford, who is also a researcher with Biosphere 2. "We started to ask, ‘Why not do both in the same place?’ And we have been growing crops like tomatoes, peppers, chard, kale, and herbs in the shade of solar panels ever since.”

Using solar photovoltaic, or PV, panels and regional vegetables, the team created the first agrivoltaics research site at Biosphere 2. Professors and students, both undergraduate and graduate, measured everything from when plants germinated to the amount of carbon plants were sucking out of the atmosphere and the water they were releasing, to their total food production throughout the growing season.

The study focused on chiltepin pepper, jalapeno and cherry tomato plants that were positioned under a PV array. Throughout the average three-month summer growing season, researchers continuously monitored incoming light levels, air temperature and relative humidity using sensors mounted above the soil surface, and soil surface temperature and moisture at a depth of 5 centimeters. Both the traditional planting area and the agrivoltaic system received equal irrigation rates and were tested using two irrigation scenarios – daily irrigation and irrigation every second day.

They found that the agrivoltaics system significantly impacted three factors that affect plant growth and reproduction – air temperatures, direct sunlight and atmospheric demand for water. The shade provided by the PV panels resulted in cooler daytime temperatures and warmer nighttime temperatures than the traditional, open-sky planting system. There was also a lower vapor pressure deficit in the agrivoltaics system, meaning there was more moisture in the air.

"We found that many of our food crops do better in the shade of solar panels because they are spared from the direct sun," Baron-Gafford said. "In fact, total chiltepin fruit production was three times greater under the PV panels in an agrivoltaic system, and tomato production was twice as great!"

Jalapenos produced a similar amount of fruit in both the agrivoltaics system and the traditional plot, but  did so with 65% less transpirational water loss.

"At the same time, we found that each irrigation event can support crop growth for days, not just hours, as in current agriculture practices. This finding suggests we could reduce our water use but still maintain levels of food production," Barron-Gafford added, noting that soil moisture remained approximately 15% higher in the agrivoltaics system than the control plot when irrigating every other day.

In addition to the benefits to the plants, the researchers also found that the agrivoltaics system increased the efficiency of energy production. Solar panels are inherently sensitive to temperature – as they warm, their efficiency drops. By cultivating crops underneath the PV panels, researchers were able to reduce the temperature of the panels.

"Those overheating solar panels are actually cooled down by the fact that the crops underneath are emitting water through their natural process of transpiration – just like misters on the patio of your favorite restaurant," Barron-Gafford said. "All told, that is a win-win-win in terms of bettering our how we grow our food, utilize our precious water resources, and produce renewable energy.”

Barron-Gafford's research into agrivoltaics has expanded to include several solar installations on Tucson Unified School District, or TUSD, land. Moses Thompson, who splits his time between the TUSD and the UA School of Geography and Development, notes that the team is also using the TUSD solar installations to engage with K-12 students.

“What draws me to this work is what happens to the K-12 learner when their involvement is consequential and the research lives in their community," Thompson said. "That shift in dynamics creates students who feel agency in addressing grand challenges such as climate change."

The authors say more research with additional plant species is needed. They also note the currently unexplored impact agrivoltaics could have on the physical and social well-bring of farm laborers. Preliminary data show that skin temperature can be about 18 degrees Fahrenheit cooler when working in an agrivoltaics area than in traditional agriculture.

“Climate change is already disrupting food production and farm worker health in Arizona,” said Gary Nabhan, an agroecologist in the UA Southwest Center and co-author on the paper. "The Southwestern U.S. sees a lot of heat stroke and heat-related death among our farm laborers; this could have a direct impact there, too."

Barron-Gafford and the team are now working with the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Lab to assess how well an agrivoltaics approach can work in other regions of the country and how regional policies can promote adoption of novel approaches to solve these pervasive problems.

“This is UA innovation at its best – an interdisciplinary team of researchers working to address some of our most challenging environmental dilemmas," said co-author Andrea Gerlak, a professor in the School of Geography and Development in the College of Social and Behavioral Sciences. "Imagine the impact we can have in our community – and the larger world – by more creatively thinking about agriculture and renewable energy production together.”

Other co-authors from the UA include: Rebecca Minor, Leland Sutter, Isaiah Barnett-Moreno, Daniel Blackett and Kirk Diamond. Mitchell Pavao-Zuckerman of the University of Maryland and Jordan Macknick of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory also contributed to the research.

This study was funded in part by: National Science Foundation award No. 1659546, Research Experiences for Undergraduates Site: Earth Systems Research for Environmental Solutions at Biosphere 2; and the Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Lab through award No. REJ-7-70227.

A traditional open-sky garden is situated next to an agrivoltaics system, in which plants are grown under solar photovoltaic panels. The study was conducted at the Biosphere 2, which can be seen in the background.