UPDATE 18. May 2021: Dr. Rand Paul doubles down, takes on Dr. Fauci and the coronavirus gain-of-function coverup

UPDATE 16. May 2021: NIH established a “public health emergency” loophole, enabling Chinese scientists to exploit a moratorium on gain-of-function coronavirus research - Dr. Anthony Fauci, Dr. Collins, Dr. Peter Daszak, Dr. Shi Zheng-li, Dr. Ralph S. Baric - are all implicated.

UPDATE 14. May 2021: Why isn’t Fauci being CRIMINALLY investigated for developing biological weapons that have been deployed against humanity?

UPDATE 21. January 2021: WARNING on COVID-19 Vaccines - Could be a bioweapon and even more dangerous than the original infection.

ICYMI: US Military Research On Insects Could Yield Biological Weapon + Insects as Biological Weapons

BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS: A USEFUL AND TIMELY FACTUAL OVERVIEW – PART I-III

Biological Weapons: A Useful and Timely Factual Overview - Part IBy Larry Romanoff - 12. February 2020 

The US government and its many agencies and educational and health institutions, have for many decades conducted intensive research into biological warfare, in many cases strongly focused on race-specific pathogens.

In a report to the US Congress, the Department of Defense revealed that its program of creating artificial biological agents included modifying non-fatal viruses to make them lethal, and genetic engineering to alter the immunology of biological agents to make treatment and vaccinations impossible. The military report admitted that at the time it operated about 130 bio-weapons research facilities, dozens at US universities and others at many international sites outside the purview of the US Congress and the jurisdiction of the courts.

This knowledge hasn’t been a secret for a long time. In a classified 1948 report by the Pentagon’s Committee on Biological Warfare, the main selling point was that:

 “A gun or a bomb leaves no doubt that a deliberate attack has occurred. But if … an epidemic slashes across a crowded city, there is no way of knowing whether anyone attacked, much less who”, adding hopefully that “A significant portion of the human population within selected target areas may be killed or incapacitated” with only very small amounts of a pathogen. (1) (2)

A US Army operating manual from 1956 stated explicitly that biological and chemical warfare were an integral operating portion of US military strategy, were not restricted in any way, and that Congress had given the military “First Strike” authority on their use. In 1959, an attempt by Congress to remove this first-strike authority was defeated by the White House and bio-chemical weapons expenditures increased from $75 million to almost $350 million. That was an enormous amount of money in the early 1960s. (3)

Biological Weapons: A Useful and Timely Factual Overview - Part I

US Defense Secretary Robert McNamara (image on the right) executed 150 top-secret bio-weapons programs in the 1960s, performing bio-weapons experiments and field tests on an unwitting public, sometimes in foreign countries but most often against American citizens. McNamara ordered the Joint Chiefs of Staff  “to consider all possible applications” of these agents against enemy nations in a coherent plan for a total “biological and chemical deterrent capability”, the plan to include cost estimates and an “appraisal of international political consequences”. (4) (5)

In the year 2000, The Project for the New American Century (6) (7) produced a report titled, “Rebuilding America’s Defenses”, which contained a radical and belligerent Right-Wing policy ambition for America. Their report called itself a “blueprint for maintaining global US preeminence … and shaping the international security order in line with American principles and interests.” The authors, their genocidal mentality obvious, stated:

“Advanced forms of biological warfare that can ‘target’ specific genotypes may transform biological warfare … to a politically useful tool.”

Bio-Weapons Research Institutions

Biological Weapons: A Useful and Timely Factual Overview - Part I

The US Army’s Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases at Fort Detrick, Maryland is the military’s main facility for research on biological warfare. It comprises 80,000 m². By the mid-1980s, this bio-weapons section of Fort Detrick was receiving nearly $100 million per year, and this was only one of many sections.

When Japan invaded China, one of Dr. Ishii’s (unit 731) grand successes was to develop methods of mass-producing fleas and ticks infected with the plague and other lethal pathogens for distribution among civilian populations – which is how the Americans learned to weaponise insects – to breed and disseminate ticks infested with Lyme Disease from their secret Plum Island Germ Laboratory in New York State. This was also the source of the US programs of breeding and disseminating mosquitoes and fleas infected with cholera and Yellow Fever in China and North Korea, to say nothing of the domestic mosquito programs the US inflicted on its own people.

Founded on Ishii’s human research, the US military developed an entomological (insect) warfare facility, and initially prepared plans to attack Russia and the Soviet States with entomological bio-weapons. The facility was designed to produce 100 million yellow fever-infected mosquitoes per month, its output tested on unwitting American civilians by dropping infected mosquitoes and other insects over large portions of the US. As is so typical for the US military, these projects beginning in the 1950s and 1960s were given juvenile appellations like “Project Big Buzz” and “Project Big Itch” and “Operation Mayday” (8) (9) (10), but were tests of the feasibility of producing billions of insects, infecting them with lethal pathogens, then loading them into munitions and dispersing them over Russia from aircraft or even missiles.

From a US Army report from March of 1981, one writer noted that “you can marvel at how much (or how little) it would have cost to launch a yellow fever-infected mosquito attack on a city – with a handy “Cost per Death” chart included!.” The Dugway Sheep incident is worth attention as well. (11)

Then we had “Operation Drop Kick” (12), designed to test various ways of dispersing infected insects over large geographical areas, the tests carried out over various parts of the continental US, including most of the East Coast. We had “Project SHAD (Shipboard Hazard and Defense). Then, as late as 2000, we had “Project Bacchus” designed to determine the feasibility of constructing an anthrax production facility in a foreign country while remaining undetected. There were other of these programs of course, all with foolish names and all designed to assess the dissemination of infected insects and other lethal pathogens into civilian populations. They were kept very secret since they were illegal in domestic law and contravened international law and many weapons treaties that other nations signed with the US in good faith.

In the year 2000, The Project for the New American Century (6) (7) produced a report titled, “Rebuilding America’s Defenses”, which contained a radical and belligerent Right-Wing policy ambition for America. Their report called itself a “blueprint for maintaining global US preeminence … and shaping the international security order in line with American principles and interests.” The authors, their genocidal mentality obvious, stated:

“Advanced forms of biological warfare that can ‘target’ specific genotypes may transform biological warfare … to a politically useful tool.”

In addition to Fort Detrick, the US military has a bio-weapons ordnance plant at Vigo, Indiana, which was a massive production facility that specialised in biological pathogens, and capable of producing 275,000 bombs containing Botulinum or one million anthrax bombs per month. The fermenter tanks at Vigo contained 250,000 gallons, or about one million liters, making it, according to reports, by far the largest bacterial mass-production facility in the world.

This was not a recent development; Vigo was fully operational during the Second World War, essentially a bio-anthrax factory, one of its first orders being from Winston Churchill in 1944 for 500,000 anthrax bombs, and which Churchill stated should be considered only the “first installment”. Vigo was eventually turned over to Pfizer for “antibiotics manufacture” and was replaced in the mid-1950s by a new state of the art facility at the Pine Bluff Arsenal. (13) (14) (15)

The Daily News published an article on 24 September 2005, in which it detailed US Army plans for bulk purchases of anthrax, relating a series of contracts that had been discovered by Edward Hammond, director of the Sunshine Project, which emanated from the military’s Dugway Proving Ground in Utah. These notices asked various companies to tender for the production of bulk quantities of anthrax, as well as to produce “significant volumes” of other biological agents. One contract specified that the tendering company “must have the ability and be willing to grow (anthrax) in 1,500-litre quantities”, and “must also be able to produce 3,000-litre batches” of unspecified other biological agents. (16) (17)

When a nation’s military is producing lethal biological pathogens in quantities of millions of liters, it is time to stop pretending we are not engaged in biological warfare. It is of no comfort that the military might claim these to be “harmless” strains of pathogens, since (1) any facility capable of producing benign pathogens can easily produce lethal varieties and (2) there is no such thing as ‘harmless’ anthrax.

There is no material difference between a defensive and an offensive biowarfare program, and even fools cannot claim “self-defense” when producing millions of liters of anthrax. Even the US Government Accountability Office, in its 1994 report on these programs, stated that US military’s Biological Defense Program contained “scores of divisions, departments, research groups, bio-intelligence and more, by no means all related to “‘defense’ in any sense”, and were by nature belligerent and offensive military programs. We are nevertheless assured that the US “has never used biological weapons”, by the same people who were simultaneously tendering contracts for the production of anthrax and other “pathogens” in multiple batches of 3,000 liters. Dissembling propaganda is impossible to avoid in America, even in official military medical textbooks.

There were other sites and facilities besides Fort Detrick that were constructed by the US military solely for the development of bio-weapons, including the Horn Island Testing Station in Mississippi which was meant to be the primary bio-weapons testing site, and the Plum Island Germ Laboratory in New York State from which the military spread Lyme Disease among half the area population.

One portion of the Plum Island facility was designed exclusively to develop and test lethal animal pathogens that could destroy an enemy nation’s food supply – as the US attempted to do in North Korea. Deadly strains of foot-and-mouth disease were one result of this research, which the Americans later shared with their fellow psychopaths at Porton Down in the UK – who put it to good use. An additional portion was the development, testing and production of bombs containing what was called a “vegetable killer acid”, and which could destroy cereals, grains, and most cultivated vegetable crops. I have a strong suspicion that many of the recent bird flu and swine flu epidemics originated from pathogens created at Plum Island.

The textbook titled, Medical Aspects of Biological Warfare (2007), published by the US military’s Surgeon-General, admits to the establishment of “a large-scale production facility in Pine Bluff, Arkansas”, with the new plant featuring “advanced laboratory … measures enabling large-scale fermentation, concentration, storage, and weaponisation of microorganisms”.

And it does also admit that by 1951, the US had produced its first biological weapons, anti-crop bombs, and “antipersonnel” munitions, having “weaponised and stockpiled” all these. It adds that the CIA had independently “developed weapons using toxins including cobra venom and saxitoxin for covert operations”, but that unfortunately “all records regarding their development and deployment were destroyed in 1972” when the information became public. (18)

And the US military has tried to weaponise venereal diseases, leading to travesties like the Guatemala Syphilis project, where they infected thousands then left them to die. The official narrative, while admitting the criminality, stubbornly adheres to the tale of a charitable purpose of testing medications – for thousands who were specifically denied the medicines that would have saved their lives. (19)

The US military appears desperate not only to find biological ways to kill nations of people, but is equally interested in methods of destroying their food supply. Accordingly, it also confessed to another several dozen (at least) occasions where devastating crop and plant disease agents had been released, in experiments to test methods of destroying the entire food plant life of an enemy nation. In 2012, Japanese media revealed that the United States government had tested specific, DNA-engineered crop-killing bioweapons in Okinawa and Taiwan during the 1960s and early 1970s, and that the US military tested some of these within the continental US as well. They were also applied in Vietnam. The purpose of Agent Orange was never as a defoliant as claimed, but developed instead to destroy Vietnam’s entire rice crops and to sufficiently contaminate the soil to prevent re-growth.

Author:

Larry Romanoff is a retired management consultant and businessman. He has held senior executive positions in international consulting firms, and owned an international import-export business. He has been a visiting professor at Shanghai’s Fudan University, presenting case studies in international affairs to senior EMBA classes. Mr. Romanoff lives in Shanghai and is currently writing a series of ten books generally related to China and the West. He can be contacted at: . He is a frequent contributor to Global Research.

Notes

(1) www.nasonline.org/about-nas/history/archives/collections/cbw-1941-1948.html

(2) https://www.baltimoresun.com/news/bs-xpm-2004-08-01-0408010004-story.html

(3) https://usacac.army.mil/sites/default/files/misc/doctrine/CDG/cdg_resources/manuals/fm/fm27_10.pdf

(4) https://archive.vva.org/archive/TheVeteran/2006_03/featureSHAD.htm

(5) https://rielpolitik.com/2016/08/07/cover-up-project-shad-deception-in-open-waters/

(6) https://www.loc.gov/item/lcwa00010308

(7) https://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php/Project_for_the_New_American_Century

(8) https://blackthen.com/operation-big-itch-operation-drop-kick-fleas-infected-mosquitoes-dropped-black-towns/

(9) https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Operation_Big_Itch

(10) https://self.gutenberg.org/articles/operation_may_day

(11) https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Dugway_sheep_incident (This article has many useful references)

(12) https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Operation_Drop_Kick

(13) https://www.thenation.com/article/bioterrorism-hits-home/

(14) https://libcom.org/files/Churchill%20and%20Poison%20Gas.pdf

(15) https://forum.axishistory.com/viewtopic.php?t=232989

(16) https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn8044-us-army-plans-to-bulk-buy-anthrax/

(17) https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg18725184-800-us-army-plans-to-bulk-buy-anthrax/

(18) Medical Aspects of Biological Warfare; https://repository.netecweb.org/items/show/325

(19) https://www.cbsnews.com/news/guatemala-syphilis-experiments-in-1940s-called-chillingly-egregious/

Originally appeared at Global Research but vanished from there.

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THE GEOPOLITICAL DEPLOYMENT OF BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS – PART II

The Geopolitical Deployment of Biological Weapons - Part II

By Larry Romanoff - 14. February 2020

It should be apparent that the launching of bio-warfare, as with conventional warfare, is considerably eased by locating military bases, offensive weapons and delivery systems as physically close as possible to one’s potential enemies. This is one reason the US has established its nearly 1,000 foreign military bases – to ensure the capability of putting an enemy under attack within 30 minutes anywhere in the world. Clearly, the same strategy applies to biological warfare, the US military having created scores of these labs euphemistically defined as “health-security infrastructure” in foreign countries.

It is frightening to learn that many of these foreign bio-installations are classified as so “Top-Secret” they are outside the knowledge and control of even the local governments in the nations where they are built. It is also frightening to learn that the Ebola outbreaks all occurred in close proximity to several of these well-known (and top-secret) US bio-weapons labs in Africa.

There were great fears a few years ago when American scientists recreated the Spanish flu virus that killed around 50 million people in 1918. They spent nine years on this effort before succeeding, and now large quantities of this virus are stored in a high-security government laboratory in Atlanta, Georgia. More recently, scientists have created a mutated super-strain of the deadly H5N1 bird flu virus that is directly transmissible among humans and would have at least a 50% kill rate, spawning fears in 2005 of a global pandemic that might kill hundreds of millions.

In late 2013, more than 50 of the world’s most eminent scientists severely criticised the research Ron Fouchier and colleagues at the Erasmus Medical Centre in Rotterdam, who have been developing mutant varieties of the H5N1 bird-flu virus that are far more dangerous to humans. The scientists wrote that the research was designed to make the virus fully transmissible between humans, and clearly had a dual civil-military function. This engineered flu could kill half the world’s population, and not by accident. The US military funded this research with more than $400 million.

The Korean War

The Geopolitical Deployment of Biological Weapons - Part II

During and after the Korean War, China produced considerable evidence that the US military was employing biological pathogens against both the Chinese and the North Koreans. More than 25 US POWs supported Chinese claims – and provided further, and very detailed, corroborating evidence  of anthrax, various insects such as mosquitoes and fleas carrying Yellow Fever, and even propaganda leaflets infected with cholera, over the entire North-East of China and virtually all of North Korea. The US government immediately filed charges of sedition against the soldiers who told their stories of these illegal activities, applying enormous pressure to silence them, even threatening defending lawyers with unspecified retribution. As a final desperate attempt to silence these former POWs, the US military relied on the CIA to subject them to extensive treatments with a newly-discovered and dangerous drug called Metrazol, in attempts to totally erase all memories of their activities in Korea, apparently destroying the mens’ minds in the process.

Global Research published an article on September 07, 2015 by David Swanson which provided some detail on American attempts to flood North Korea with the Bubonic Plague, beginning with the statement, “This happened some 63 years ago, but as the U.S. government has never stopped lying about it, and it’s generally known only outside the United States, I’m going to treat it as news.”

Correct on all counts. Curtis LeMay not only conducted his sincere attempts to exterminate the entire civilian population of North Korea by bombing virtually every house in the country, but there is now a huge and still emerging volume of indisputable evidence the Americans dropped on both North Korea and China insects and materials carrying anthrax, cholera, encephalitis, and bubonic plague. (26)

Then on September 10, 2012, the Los Angeles Times ran an article discussing the topic of doctors “still trying to diagnose mysteries of the Hantavirus” more than 20 years after this deadly pathogen was first identified in the US in 1993. (101) In this case, the virus appeared to attack only native Indians – the infections concentrated in a four-state area – who developed sudden respiratory problems and were often dead within hours. Most victims reported “not feeling well” one day, and were dead the next, from what appeared as a very mysterious pathogen with an undeterminable source. But then, “a lucky clue” arose from a television viewer, a physician who stated this illness seemed very similar to that caused by a virus he had observed the US military using in Korea in the 1950s. And sure enough, tests proved the illness to be caused by a variation of the same Hantavirus that attacked troops in Korea. (27)

The virus attracted attention because some American troops were accidentally exposed to it in Korea, most of whom died very suddenly. Two facts that were eliminated from the public reports of the time: (1) the virus attacked North Koreans and Chinese in greater numbers, and (2) this Hantavirus was one item in the treasure trove of biological weapons the Americans inherited from Dr. Ishii and his Unit 731. The Japanese were light-years ahead of the Americans and the Western Allies in virus research and had isolated the lethal Hantavirus by the late 1930s, with much evidence it was used against China by the Japanese and later against both China and North Korea by the Americans. It seems that some of this weaponised material escaped containment and exposed American and South Korean soldiers to their own handiwork.

US Biowarfare on Cuba

One of the commonly-known (outside the US) biological warfare programs conducted by the US, remarkable for its longevity, is the decades-long offensive attack on Cuba. The US military and CIA conducted so many of these biological assaults that there is a museum in Havana that provides substantial evidence of the many years of biological warfare against this small country. Jeffrey St. Clair noted in an article a few of these events, as follows: (28)

“In 1971 the first documented cases of swine fever in the western hemisphere showed up in Cuba, resulting in the deaths of more than 500,000 hogs. Cuba accused the US of importing that virus into the country, and a CIA agent later admitted that he delivered the virus to Cuban exiles in Panama, who carried the virus into Cuba. The news was public, but the US media ignored it. In 1981, Fidel Castro blamed an outbreak of dengue fever in Cuba on the CIA. The fever killed 188 people, including 88 children. In 1988, a Cuban exile leader named Eduardo Arocena admitted bringing some germs into Cuba in 1980. Another occasion involved an outbreak of thrips palmi, an insect that kills potato crops, palm trees and other vegetation. Thrips first showed up in Cuba on December 12, 1996, following low-level flights over the island by US government spray planes. The US was able to quash a United Nations investigation of the incident.”

This was only a small part of America’s biological aggression against Cuba. In 1979, the Washington Post published reports on a long-standing American bio-warfare program against Cuban agriculture that had existed at least since 1962, by the CIA’s biological warfare section. And in 1980, the US believed it had discovered a biological agent that would target ethnic Russians, and sent a ship from Florida to Cuba on a mission to “carry some germs to Cuba to be used against the Soviets”. And as recently as 1996 and 1997, the Cuban government was again accusing the US of engaging in biological warfare by spraying Cuban crops with biological pathogens during illegal “reconnaissance flights”. It was also definitively reported that during the Cuban missile crisis, large numbers of chemical and biological weapons were loaded on American military aircraft in preparation for use on Cuba.

American bio-warfare efforts have also been launched on at least several other nations in Central and South America, involving a number of viral pathogens, cancers and chemicals. In his article, St. Clair referred to an epidemic of dengue fever that erupted in Managua, Nicaragua, where about 50,000 people became seriously ill and many died. The attack occurred during the CIA’s war against the Sandinista government, where the outbreak immediately followed a series of low-level so-called “reconnaissance flights” conducted by the Americans over Managua.

It has also been reliably reported by several sources that the US military has used Haiti as a kind of “open season” biological lab, exposing the local population to almost everything imaginable, with the US media keeping a very tight lid on information leakage. Even more reprehensible was the treatment awarded to those Haitians who made the serious mistake of becoming “boat people”, i.e. escaping their American pathology lab by emigrating in small boats to the US. The US government deported most to Puerto Rico to be used as guinea pigs and lab rats, where they would be out of view of Congress and the media and, according to reports, having contained them in concentration camps to inflict upon them whatever ‘scientific tests’ they avoided at home. In one case as recently as 1980, hundreds of Haitian men in these detention camps developed full-size female breasts after being injected repeatedly with unknown hormones by US military physicians. The historical record tells us the same was done to the same people in a publicly off-limits military base in Florida.

Along with Cuba, there is the strange case of the more or less simultaneous occurrence of cancers among the leaders of South American countries, coincidentally in each case, the infection of a national leader the US despised and had tried to remove by several other means. We had Hugo Chávez, the President of Venezuela, Argentina’s president Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, Brazil’s president, Dilma Rousseff, Paraguay’s Fernando Lugo, and the former Brazilian President, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva. A former Brazilian President, speaking of these cancers, said in an interview,

“It is very hard to explain, even with the law of probabilities, what has been happening to some leaders in Latin America. It’s at the very least strange, very strange.”

The Secret WW II US-Japan Bio-Partnership

When Japanese troops invaded North-East China in 1932, Dr. Shiro Ishii began his notorious biological warfare experimentation program in a sector near Harbin disguised as a water-purification unit, then known as Unit 731. He began with various poisonous gases including mustard gas, then used aircraft to distribute cotton and rice husks contaminated with the bubonic plague, in various parts of Central China. His unit collected Chinese resisting the Japanese occupation, using them for unlimited medical atrocities including live vivisection. The New York Times reported one instance of a Japanese physician describing his experience there:

“I cut him open from the chest to the stomach and he screamed terribly and his face was all twisted in agony. He made this unimaginable sound, he was screaming so horribly. But then finally he stopped. This was all in a day’s work for the surgeons, but it really left an impression on me because it was my first time.” (29)

Ishii would first have his teams infect the victims with anthrax, cholera, typhoid, tetanus, dysentery, syphilis, the bubonic plague and other pathogens, then dissect them while still alive to examine the results, followed by cremation of the evidence. The US military’s Surgeon-General’s Department estimated that 580,000 Chinese were killed in this manner, with atrocities committed by some of Japan’s most distinguished physicians. (30)

At the end of the war when it became clear Japan was losing and would have to evacuate China, Ishii ordered all the remaining Chinese in custody to be killed and their bodies burned, then destroyed with explosives the entire Unit 731 compound to hide all traces of his experiments. General Douglas MacArthur, then Commander of the Allied Powers in Japan, made a secret deal with Ishii and the entire staff of Unit 731 to transfer to the US military all records of the biowarfare and vivisections for US military study, in exchange for a complete cover-up of all evidence of the existence of these activities, and a promise of immunity from war-crimes prosecution. (31)

Ishii turned over to the US military on one occasion alone more than 10,000 pages of his “research findings”, after which the Americans re-wrote Japan’s history books, which is why neither the Japanese nor the world know of the massive atrocities committed in China, and which is where the American military gained much of its expertise and know-how in chemical and biological weapons and the methods of human experimentation it would later apply so freely in Korea and Vietnam and to American citizens.

On 6 May 1947, MacArthur wrote to Washington that “additional data, possibly some statements from Ishii probably can be obtained by informing Japanese involved that information will be retained in intelligence channels and will not be employed as ‘War Crimes’ evidence.” Some Japanese were arrested by Soviet forces for their biological crimes against Russians, and tried at the Khabarovsk War Crime Trials in 1949 but, to cover their own tracks, the Americans dismissed all surviving victim testimony and Russia’s war-crimes trials of Japanese as “communist propaganda”. (32) (33)

Not only did the US government and military provide Dr. Ishii and his staff total immunity from prosecution, they imported the entire group to the US, all secretly stationed on US military bases and on the US Army payroll. Ishii was for years a frequent guest lecturer at the US military’s bio-warfare school at Fort Detrick, and given a lucrative post as full professor and supervisor of biological research at the University of Maryland until he died decades later. It was only in 1995 that the US military finally admitted it had offered immunity, secret identities, and good jobs with high salaries, to these Japanese scientists and physicians in exchange for their work on biological warfare research and human experimentation. These people were recruited not only by the military, but by the CDC, the US State Department, military intelligence, the CIA, and the US Department of Agriculture, all for work on “secret government projects”.

Epilogue

From the very earliest days of America’s bio-warfare experiments, US political and military leaders, as well as CIA officials, made no effort to hide their interest in developing methods of infecting individuals with cancer as a method of ridding themselves of national leaders they didn’t like, a method with perfect deniability. The US record of having assassinated by various means about 150 political leaders in other nations will attest to this assertion.

“The attraction is that bio-weapons are not only very efficient mass killers but are quite cost-effective compared to shooting wars. As well, genetic weapons can be dispersed in a multitude of ways, using virus-infected insects or bacteria, or spliced into GM seeds. These weapons are difficult to detect and identify, and often a treatment or vaccine could be years in the making.”

Dr. Leonard Horowitz, the famed pharma industry whistleblower, quoted one expert as saying he would plan a bio-attack

“with subtle finesse, to make it look like a natural outbreak. That would delay the response and lock up the decision-making process. Even if you suspect biological terrorism, it’s hard to prove. It’s equally hard to disprove . . . You can trace an arms shipment, but it’s almost impossible to trace the origins of a virus that comes from a bug.”

One author noted that a properly-done release of an infectious agent would make diagnosis and treatment difficult, adding that this kind of bio-warfare cannot be traced to its source and might be considered an “act of God”.

Many recent disease outbreaks would seem to properly qualify as potential bio-warfare agents: AIDS, SARS, MERS, Bird Flu, Swine Flu, Hantavirus, Lyme Disease, West Nile Virus, Ebola, Polio (Syria), Foot and Mouth Disease, the Gulf War Syndrome and ZIKA.

The Western mass media have ignored all of this, censoring this entire portion of history, and even the Internet has been scrubbed with Google and Bing unable to find the truth which is out there. Once again, freedom of speech depends entirely on who controls the microphone.

Author:

Larry Romanoff is a retired management consultant and businessman. He has held senior executive positions in international consulting firms, and owned an international import-export business. He has been a visiting professor at Shanghai’s Fudan University, presenting case studies in international affairs to senior EMBA classes. Mr. Romanoff lives in Shanghai and is currently writing a series of ten books generally related to China and the West. He can be contacted at: . He is a frequent contributor to Global Research.

Notes

(26) https://www.globalresearch.ca/u-s-drops-fleas-with-bubonic-plague-on-north-korea/5474089

(27) https://www.latimes.com/archives/la-xpm-2012-sep-10-la-me-hantavirus-mystery-20120911-story.html

(28) https://www.counterpunch.org/2013/09/03/germ-war-the-us-record-2/

(29) https://www.nytimes.com/1995/03/18/opinion/the-crimes-of-unit-731.html

(30) https://www.cs.amedd.army.mil/borden/Portlet.aspx?ID=66cffe45-c1b8-4453-91e0-9275007fd157

(31) https://ahrp.org/conspiracy-of-denial-complicity-of-u-s-government-in-japans-fabricated-history-decades-of-willful-national-amnesia/

(32) https://medium.com/@jeff_kaye/department-of-justice-official-releases-letter-admitting-u-s-amnesty-of-unit-731-war-criminals-9b7da41d8982

(33) https://www.latimes.com/archives/la-xpm-1988-12-18-me-1014-story.html

Originally appeared at Global Research but vanished from there.

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Genetically Modified Seeds: Conceived as a Weapon

- PART III

Here’s part three of the series, and it details the role of genetically modified seeds as potential bioweapons to be used in geopolitics and global depopulation. It basically documents how replacing conventional organic heirloom seeds with modified ones can supplant the global food supply and cause massive depopulation.

By Larry Romanoff - 15. February 2020

GM seeds and GM food carry great risks for all nations, so much so that for many reasons it is probably imperative these foods be banned outright. This subject is too large to be discussed here, but one aspect requires brief notice. If we were to ask about the origin of GM seeds, how the idea was conceived and developed, who did the research and who provided the funding, how would we reply? We might reasonably suggest that perhaps the concept originated in the Biology or Agricultural Department of some university, or that a government lab doing research on food supplies might have conceived and pursued the idea. Or, we might suggest a private company in the agricultural field was looking for more productive varieties of grains and stumbled on this process.

We might suggest all those answers, but in each case we would be wrong. GM seed was conceived, promoted, researched and funded by the US Department of Defense – the American War Department. GM seed was never meant as a way to feed the hungry, but was instead conceived and developed as a weapon or, more precisely, as a weapons-delivery system. Genetically-Modified seed was never intended to support human life, but to eliminate it.

See the source imageGM seed is neither more productive nor healthier than traditional heritage crops, and is far more expensive and destructive, but it presents almost irresistible military advantages against any nation that becomes dependent on this source of food grains. One is that the US can use it as a political weapon, refusing to supply seed to a disfavored nation, perhaps causing widespread famine and dislocation. The other is more sinister, in that many groups have experimented with gene-splicing technology, inserting unrelated DNA into various seeds.

In one case in Canada, a government department discovered an “anti-freeze” gene contained in the blood of fish living in Arctic waters, permitting them to survive in waters of sub-zero temperature. The scientists spliced this gene into Canadian wheat crops, permitting the wheat to withstand freezing temperatures without damage. Monsanto also forced these genes into tomatoes, resulting in the first GMO tomato. An American research lab spliced the genes from fireflies into tobacco plants, producing a tobacco field that glowed in the dark.

These examples may be harmless, but others are much less so. The US Defense Department has invested huge sums in research directed to splicing lethal genes into these GM crop seeds, including smallpox, bird and swine flu viruses, coronaviruses, the plague, AIDS, and more. As a military weapon, such science is priceless. 

Why begin a shooting war when Monsanto or Cargill can sell rice, corn and soybeans that contain smallpox, H5N1, or a coronavirus? 

When the seed is harvested and passes into the nation’s food supply it could, within weeks, exterminate 50% or more of the population without firing a single shot.

And this was precisely the reason GM seed was conceived and developed by the Americans. It is a weapon of war, designed and meant to deliver to a nation’s entire population a lethal virus or other disease, to literally exterminate an enemy with no risk to the aggressor. Many scientists and US military documents have demonstrated that seeds are far cheaper and much more effective than bombs in the search for military domination. One such military document I’ve discussed elsewhere stated the cost per death of an enemy population by nuclear, conventional and biological weapons, the latter being orders of magnitude less than the former.

In 2001 scientists at the Epicyte bio-lab in San Diego created a GM contraceptive corn, having discovered a rare class of human antibodies that attack sperm. 

Their researchers isolated the genes that regulate the manufacture of these antibodies and inserted them into corn plants, creating horticultural factories that make contraceptives. Shortly after the 2001 Epicyte press release, all discussion of the breakthrough vanished. The company was taken over by Biolex and nothing more was heard in any media about the development of spermicidal corn. Epicyte, DuPont and Syngenta (sponsors of the Svalbard Seed Vault) had a joint venture to share and use this technology. Silvia Ribeiro, of the NGO ETC Group, warned in a column in the Mexican daily La Jornada, that “The potential of spermicidal corn as a biological weapon is very high”, and reminisced about the use of forced sterilizations against indigenous peoples.

The Doomsday Seed Vault at Svalbard

A new and serious cause for concern is the recently-announced seed vault built on a piece of barren rock named Svalbard, which is owned by Norway, is very remote near the North Pole, and virtually inaccessible. According to press releases, this seed vault has dual blast-proof doors with motion sensors, two airlocks, and walls of steel-reinforced concrete one meter thick. There are no full-time staff, but the vault’s relative inaccessibility will facilitate monitoring any human activity. The stated purpose is to store the entire world’s heritage seeds so that crop diversity can be saved for the future, but that crop diversity is already “saved”, stored in vaults all around the world. What do these people foresee, that such a remote and secure facility should be developed?

The promoters and financiers of this venture are the same people who control the world’s GM seeds and who have been among the most outspoken proponents of drastically reducing the world’s population: the Rockefeller and Gates Foundations, Syngenta, DuPont, Monsanto and CGIAR. These are the same people who are actively destroying crop diversity all over the planet. Why would they suddenly get religion and decide to save in Norway the same seeds they are destroying everywhere else?

Some time ago, William Engdahl wrote an excellently researched article on this subject of the seed vault and arrived at the same conclusion, that the vault was created as a storehouse for lethal biological pathogens, the DNA of which can be combined with GM seed and unleashed anywhere with the help of these same seed companies. No other use would explain the list of participants or the need for the remote location and virtually nuclear-proof security. Engdahl asked, “Is it a coincidence that these same organizations, from Norway to the Rockefeller Foundation to the World Bank are also involved in the Svalbard seed bank project?”

Author:

Larry Romanoff is a retired management consultant and businessman. He has held senior executive positions in international consulting firms, and owned an international import-export business. He has been a visiting professor at Shanghai’s Fudan University, presenting case studies in international affairs to senior EMBA classes. Mr. Romanoff lives in Shanghai and is currently writing a series of ten books generally related to China and the West. He can be contacted at: . He is a frequent contributor to Global Research.

Notes

Originally appeared at Global Research but vanished from there.

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UPDATES:

Dr. Rand Paul doubles down, takes on Dr. Fauci and the coronavirus gain-of-function coverup

By  - 18. May 2021

Image: Dr. Rand Paul doubles down, takes on Dr. Fauci and the coronavirus gain-of-function coverup

Kentucky Senator Rand Paul is doubling down on Dr. Anthony Fauci and the gain-of-function coronavirus coverup that was funded by the National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID), where Fauci presides as director.

On a new episode of Fox and Friends, Dr. Paul slammed Fauci for avoiding critical questions about the origins of gain-of-function research in Wuhan, China. Should Fauci be overseeing these large government research grants if he is unwilling to discuss what the money is being used for? This unethical field of research involves gene splicing processes that make viruses more infectious and lethal to humans. This field of research also uses human and rodent chimeras to help scientists understand how to exploit human lung cells. The purpose of creating these bioweapons is to develop vaccines — an experiment that is currently being carried out on the world population.

Fauci’s perjury and dodgy behavior reek of a criminal coverup

In the Senate hearing, Dr. Fauci repeatedly and adamantly denied that the NIH or the NIAID had any role in the multinational coronavirus experiment. Dr. Paul laid out the facts and exposed the money trail, tying Fauci and the NIAID to at least thirty published studies on coronavirus gain-of-function, which involved EcoHealth Alliance in New York, the University of North Carolina and the Wuhan Institute of Virology in China.

[N.B.: Authorities in the USA a elsewhere should deny Ecohealth to carry "Eco" in their name, because what they are doing has nothig to do with sound Ecology nor with proper economy - it is a misleading coverup - except economic fraud.]

After he was exposed in the May 11 Senate hearing, Fauci went to the media to shore up his image. On an episode of CBS This Morning, Fauci said, “You know, Gayle, I just don’t want to get into that tit-for-tat.” Next, Fauci tried to deflect from the serious matter at hand and imply that Dr. Paul is the one with a “problem.” “I just don’t understand what the problem is with him. I’m just going to do my job and he can do what he wants to do and we’ll see what happens,” said Fauci.

Dr. Paul responded on Fox and Friends by bringing attention to the fact that CBS is merely perpetrating propaganda and not engaging in actual journalism. Paul said, “If [Fauci] was being interviewed by a journalist, they would have asked, Did the NIH, did your specific division of the NIH, give money to the Wuhan lab?”

Paul continued, “That’s incontrovertibly true. What he’s arguing is he’s parsing his words. He knows his group gave money, but he’s saying, ‘Oh, it wasn’t for juicing up these superviruses. We gave it for other research.'”

Fauci is showing telltale signs of criminal intent

As Fauci arrogantly tries to dissociate himself from the controversial gain-of-function money trail, he appears guilty of much more. Essentially, Fauci is trying to make Dr. Paul prove that the grants were doled out with criminal INTENT. However, when Fauci blatantly lies about the money trail, he essentially shows the world that he does possess criminal INTENT with the capacity to perjure himself into impunity. As Dr. Paul points out, Fauci is trying to “evade that he funded it [gain-of-function research] at all.”

In one of the science papers published by Dr. Shi Zhengli of the Wuhan Institute of Virology, Dr. Zhengli thanks Dr. Fauci specifically. The aim of her research, was undoubtedly, about making coronaviruses more infectious and lethal to humans. “We have this in black and white from a peer-review journal, she said the funding came from Dr. Fauci’s NIAID, this is Dr. Fauci’s baby for 40 years, she lists him in the credits, he can’t escape this,” Paul said. “He did the funding.”

The Wuhan Institute of Virology had to receive approval from both the U.S. State Department and the NIH in order to receive the funds through EcoHealth Alliance. The $3.4 million grants were paid in six installments over a five-year period. “I asked him the general question,” Paul iterated. “I didn’t ask him whether he funded gain of function, I said, ‘Did the NIH fund the Wuhan lab?’ and he danced around it and answered a different question,” said Paul. “But there is no question at all that the NIH funded this lab.”

“Ultimately, here’s the rub,” Paul said. “I don’t know whether it came from the lab. Nobody knows whether it came from the lab. But who would be culpable? Dr. Fauci could be culpable for the entire pandemic. So could Dr. Daszak, and so could Dr. Shi. I’m not saying that happened; I don’t know. But you wouldn’t put the people who gave the money to the Wuhan lab in charge of the investigation.”

“That looks like a cover-up,” Paul concluded.

Sources include:

ThePostMillenial.com

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NIH established a “public health emergency” loophole, enabling Chinese scientists to exploit a moratorium on gain-of-function coronavirus research

By  - 16. May 2021

Dr. Anthony Fauci, Dr. Collins, Dr. Peter Daszak, Dr. Shi Zheng-li, Dr. Ralph S. Baric - are all implicated

Image: NIH established a “public health emergency” loophole, enabling Chinese scientists to exploit moratorium on gain-of-function coronavirus research

At a May 11 Senate hearing, Dr. Rand Paul interrogated Dr. Anthony Fauci on the role of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in advancing coronavirus gain-of-function research. As director of the National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID) at the NIH, Dr. Fauci tried to dissociate the NIH, its director, Dr. Francis Collins, and himself from having any connection to coronavirus gain-of-function research. A moratorium was placed on this unethical virus experimentation in 2014, but the NIH established a loophole in the moratorium, allowing American and Chinese scientists a way to continue these dangerous virus, animal, and human experiments.

Dr. Fauci denies NIH involvement in gain-of-function research, but the NIH created the loophole that exploits the moratorium

Dr. Fauci adamantly asserted in the Senate hearing that the NIH had no involvement in this dangerous medical experimentation, even though the NIH approved and funded this research at the Wuhan Institute of Virology through grants dispersed to Dr. Daszak at Eco Health Alliance. In truth, either Fauci, Collins, or both men helped establish a loophole to keep money flowing to Chinese virologists and American scientists to advance gain-of-function research.

The 2014 moratorium on gain-of-function research contained a footnote on page two, granting an exception to the ban. “An exception from the research pause may be obtained if the head of the USG funding agency determines that the research is urgently necessary to protect the public health or national security.” This is yet another example of government officials using the “protect the public health” excuse to experiment on humans and threaten their life, liberty and pursuit of happiness. Every emergency order and medical edict during the covid-19 scandal is premised on this grandiose excuse.

In an interview with Independent Science News, molecular biologist Dr. Richard H. Ebright, said, “Unfortunately, the NIAID director and the NIH director exploited this loophole to issue exemptions to projects subject to the Pause—preposterously asserting the exempted research was ‘urgently necessary to protect public health or national security’ — thereby nullifying the Pause.” Ebright is part of a twenty-six-member investigation team who is conducting a forensic analysis into the origins of covid-19.

SARS-CoV-2 shows all the signs of being a product of NIH-funded experimentation

Biotech expert, Yuri Deigin, dissected the molecular biology of SARS-CoV-2 and raised the possibility that the virus was manipulated. Renowned immunologist, Nikolai Petrovsky, documented the unusual binding capability of SARS-CoV-2 to the ACE2 receptors on human lung cells. In June 2020, Chinese researchers revealed the modified mice model that was used to exploit ACE2 receptors in human lung cells. The Chinese scientists used the CRISPR gene editing tool to equip mice with ACE2 receptors from human lung cells to understand how to engineer infectious coronavirus spike proteins.

Using the serial passage technique, virologists are able to create a super virus while leaving no molecular imprint or indication of laboratory interference. The virologists transfer one virus gene at a time, allowing natural selection to run its course, concealing the gain-of-function enhancements to the super virus. The super viruses are juiced up with a precise gene sequence, and selectively pressured to bring forth the most suitable genes, ultimately allowing the super virus to bind to ACE2 receptors of human lung cells.

SARS-CoV-2 is not just “the China virus.” In fact, the origins of this highly-mutated strain of coronavirus show all the signs of being a product of the many years of coronavirus gain-of-function research that took place in American universities, with collaboration between US and Chinese virologists.

“By the time SARS-CoV-2 was first detected in late 2019, it was already pre-adapted to human transmission to an extent similar to the late epidemic SARS-CoV,” wrote Alina Chan of the Broad Institute. The 2003 SARS spike protein went through twenty-four natural changes before it could attach to human lung cells. SARS-CoV-2, on the other hand, was already genetically suited to attach to human lung cells from the start of the pandemic in 2019.

Ralph S. Baric, a coronavirus researcher at the University of North Carolina exploited the NIH loophole and worked on a project that examined the ability of bat viruses to attack human cells. In 2015, Ralph Baric worked with China’s bat lady, Shi Zheng-li to “examine the emergence potential” of circulating bat coronaviruses. Shi Zheng-li, from the Wuhan Institute of Virology, collected dozens of bat coronaviruses from the caves in Yunnan, China. By November 2015, they developed a novel coronavirus by taking the backbone of the SARS1 virus and replacing its spike protein with one from a bat virus (known as SHC014-CoV). When this manufactured virus was tested against human lung cells in vitro, it was able to attach and cause infection.

American scientists funded the Wuhan Institute of Virology with six installments of over half a million dollars apiece. Dr. Peter Daszak at the Eco Health Alliance took his $7 million in NIH grant money and dispersed it to China to advance Dr. Shi Zheng-li’s coronavirus experiments. Daszak was also a collaborator and co-author on research projects at the Chinese laboratory, and he reported back to his friend, Dr. Fauci.

Dr. Collins and Fauci are culpable in this money trail, so why would Fauci deny any involvement? Why would Fauci forgo transparency in a Senate hearing, when he has extensive knowledge on this type of research? Why won’t Fauci be forthcoming about the loophole designed by the NIH, which allowed this dangerous research to continue? A multi-year investigation into the NIH the NIAID, and the Eco Health Alliance is warranted. All NIH directors should be interrogated and all co-conspirators in bio-weapons research must be charged, until the world can get more answers.

MUST WATCH: Dr. Fauxi put on the spot - he has to be indicted now.

If your browser doesn't display this important video above - go to the VIDEO DIRECTLY or to the SITE

Sources include:

Brighteon.com

TheBulletin.org

IndependentScienceNews.org

YuriDeigin.Medium.com

BioRXIV.com

NaturalNews.com

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Why isn’t Fauci being CRIMINALLY investigated for developing biological weapons that have been deployed against humanity?

By  - 14. May 2021

Image: Why isn’t Fauci being CRIMINALLY investigated for developing biological weapons that have been deployed against humanity?

Fox News host Tucker Carlson wants to know why Anthony Fauci is not being criminally investigated for the role he played in unleashing the Wuhan coronavirus (Covid-19) plandemic.

During a recent segment, Carlson called on federal law enforcement to immediately launch an investigation into Fauci’s obvious malfeasance concerning every imposition that has come about since this whole thing began.

For instance, where is the science to back wearing a mask? If the “vaccines” do not prevent the spread of the Chinese Virus, then why are people being told to get them? How about the fact that safe remedies exist for the Wuhan Flu that Fauci refuses to acknowledge?

It has been more than a year since the plandemic began and Fauci still has nothing to offer beyond injections, masks, and fear. How is this a true representation of “science?”

“If the vaccines work, why are any vaccinated people wearing masks anywhere, ever?” Carlson asked.

“Seriously. Jeffrey Zients should be required to explain that, slowly and with numbers, so the rest of us who didn’t serve on the board of Facebook can understand. No one’s asked him to explain that, of course, so he hasn’t.”

Zients, in case you are unfamiliar, is China Joe’s “White House Coronavirus Response Coordinator.” We are all supposed to believe that he knows everything there is to know about how to deal with covid, even though he never presents any actual facts or evidence to the public.

“[No one] has asked Zients just how effective masks are at preventing the spread of COVID,” Carlson added.

“Our public health authorities act as though masks are absolutely critical. But are they absolutely critical? Where are the serious studies that prove that? Do they exist?”

When did “masklessness” become a privilege?

Another concern of Carlson is the fact that not wearing a mask has suddenly become a “privilege” for those who have been injected. It is not yet a widespread trend but is shaping up to become one.

“When did masklessness become a privilege?” Carlson asked during the segment. “For thousands of years, until 12 months ago, masklessness was the global status quo. Virtually everyone on earth lived without masks. That wasn’t considered weird. Masks are weird.”

Carlson correctly pointed out that wearing a mask is just plain gross, not to mention unhealthy. Having a festering cloth over one’s face all day is not normal, nor does it do anything to protect against viral spread.

According to Zients, however, not wearing a mask, even for the vaccinated, will be “a privilege” granted to American subjects by their “loving” government. After all, mask tyranny is for your own good, we are told.

Carlson likened not having to wear a mask as “a Scooby snack, a gold star, a pat on the head” – a tiny “reward,” in other words, for compliance with the agenda. One may or may not be granted it, though, depending on his or her social credit score.

The Democrats, you see, are sure to try to punish those who at any time defied Wuhan coronavirus (Covid-19) orders or injections.

“It’s absolutely critical to the existence of our species that you comply with it reflexively, without asking questions or thinking about it,” Carlson joked about such tyranny.

“How long will this terrifyingly irrational exercise continue? For the answer to that question, we go to a man even more partisan than Jeffrey Zients: the nation’s most highly credentialed political operative, Tony Fauci, let us know that, actually, this mask thing is never going to end.”

More related news about Fauci, Zients, and other Wuhan coronavirus (Covid-19) criminals can be found at Tyranny.news.

Sources for this article include:

Newspunch.com

NaturalNews.com

===

WARNING on COVID-19 Vaccines

- Could be a bioweapon and even more dangerous than the original infection.

Many have raised the warning that the current epidemic of COVID-19 is actually the result of an bioweapons attack released in part by individuals in the United States government [10,11]. Such a theory is not far fetched given that the 2001 anthrax attack in the US originated at Fort Detrick, a US army bioweapon facility. Because the FBI’s anthrax investigation was closed against the advice of the lead FBI agent in the case, there are likely conspirators still working in the US government. In such a scenario the primary focus of stopping a bioweapons attack must be to apprehend the conspirators or the attacks will never cease. Approving a vaccine, utilizing novel RNA technology without extensive testing is extremely dangerous. The vaccine could be a bioweapon and even more dangerous than the original infection.

DOWNLOAD pdf: COVID-19 RNA Based Vaccines and the Risk of Prion Disease

COVID-19 Bioweapon and Vaccines (Papers are linked to reference!!) 

Classen, J.B.: Evidence Supporting the Hypothesis that the 2019 Epidemic of E-vaping Acute Lung Injury (EVALI) was Caused in Part by COVID-19. Diabetes & its Complications 4(3):1-2, 2020. 

Classen, J.B.: COVID-19, MMR Vaccine, and Bioweapons. Diabetes & its Complications 4(2):1-8, 2020.

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ICYMI:

US Military Research On Insects Could Yield Biological Weapon

A US Department of Defense research program to protect crops by changing the genes of insects could possibly violate the international Biological Weapons Convention, according to five European researchers who warned in a research paper published in the journal Science on October 4th, as reported by Sputnik.

US Military Research On Insects Could Yield Biological Weapon

AFP 2018 / Thomas WATKINS

“If successful, the technique could be used by malicious actors to help spread diseases to almost any crop species and devastate harvests,” said the paper, which was authored by the French and German researchers including geneticist Robert Guy Reeves of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology in Germany and evolutionary biologist Christophe Boete of the Institute of Research for Development in France.

The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) launched the project, called “Insect Allies,” in Arlington, Virginia in 2016, with the goal of using insects such as aphids to infect crops with tailor-made viruses that can deliver certain genes to mature plants, the researchers explained.

According to DARPA, the aim of the project is to find a new way to protect plants from emerging threats. The researchers, however, claimed that the program could easily be perceived as a covert effort to produce a biological weapon.

“In the context of the stated aims of the DARPA program, it is our opinion that the knowledge to be gained from this program appears very limited in its capacity to enhance US agriculture or respond to national emergencies,” they wrote. “As a result, the program may be widely perceived as an effort to develop biological agents for hostile purposes and their means of delivery, which — if true — would constitute a breach of the Biological Weapons Convention.”

However, DARPA Program Manager for Insect Allies Blake Bextine said that he disagrees with the researcher’s opinion.

“I appreciate the thought that went into the critique of the program presented in Science, though I disagree with its conclusions. Technologies dealing with food security and gene editing certainly do have a higher bar than most for transparency, research ethics, and regulatory engagement, and I believe Insect Allies meets that raised standard,” Bextine said.

On the same day, Russia’s Defense Ministry said that the US appeared to be running a clandestine biological weapons lab in the country of Georgia, allegedly flouting international conventions and posing a direct security threat to Russia.

Maj. Gen. Igor Kirillov, the head of the Russian military’s radiation, chemical and biological protection troops, alleged at a briefing that the lab in Georgia was part of a network of U.S. labs near the borders of Russia and China.

Pentagon spokesman Eric Pahon strongly rejected Kirillov’s claims, calling them “an invention of the imaginative and false Russian disinformation campaign against the West” and “obvious attempts to divert attention from Russia’s bad behavior on many fronts.”

“The U.S. is not developing biological weapons in the Lugar Center,” Pahon said.

He said the lab, a joint human and veterinary public health facility, was owned and operated by the Georgian National Center for Disease Control and Public Health (NCDC).

“The mission of the Lugar Center is to contribute to protection of citizens from biological threats, promote public and animal health through infectious disease detection, epidemiological surveillance, and research for the benefit of Georgia, the Caucasus region and the global community,” Pahon said.

Russia’s Kirillov said the documents published by Giorgadze signaled more sinister activities were happening under the cover of civilian research. He noted that Giorgadze’s materials cited the deaths of 73 volunteers who took part in tests of a new drug at the lab in 2015-2016. The claim couldn’t be independently confirmed. Kirillov alleged the deaths showed the Lugar Center used the volunteers as guinea pigs in tests of a new deadly toxin.

The Russian general also claimed that the spread of viral diseases in southern Russia could have been linked to the activities of the Lugar Center. He pointed to the spread of the African swine fever (ASF) from Georgia since 2007 that caused massive losses for the Russian farm sector.

“It’s highly likely that the U.S. is building up its military biological potential under the cover of studying protective means and conducting other peaceful research, flouting international agreements,” he said.

He also said that the Giorgadze released documents contained a US patent for a drone intended to disseminate infected insects, other patents included projectiles for the delivery of chemical and biological agents.

“Such research doesn’t conform to Washington’s international obligations regarding the ban on biological and toxin weapons,” Kirillov said. “A legitimate question is why such documents are being stored in the Lugar Center for Public Health Research. We hope to receive a precise answer from Georgia and the United States.”

The General also claimed that the US has labs in Ukraine, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan and elsewhere. “The choice of location for such labs isn’t accidental,” Kirillov said, characterizing the research facilities as “a constant source of biological threats” to Russia and China.

Earlier, on September 10th, Russia also accused the US of carrying out airstrikes with white phosphorous bombs, which is a chemical weapon prohibited by international law over civilian areas in Syria. “Two American F-15 planes carried out bombings on September 8 [Saturday] targeting the area of Hajin in the Deir Ezzor region using incendiary phosphorous ammunition,” Russian general Vladimir Savtchenko said in a statement.

This all comes amid renewed accusations of Russian cyber-attacks on several world bodies. Russia was also recently sanctioned for the alleged biological weapons use in the failed assassination attempt of Russian ex-spy Sergei Skripal. US officials have also repeatedly accused Russia and Syrian President Bashar al-Assad’s forces of using chemical weapons in the Syrian conflict. None of these accusations have been accompanied by any evidence whatsoever.

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Despite this, as shown in this article by Gospa News, the Pentagon has launched 25 laboratories for the experimentation and manipulation of viruses to be used in the “Insect Allies” program through the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). This serious danger, in recent months, has also raised the alarm of one of the most important British universities …

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Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense

ISSN: 2157-2526

Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense

Insects as Biological Weapons

  • Research Article   
  • J Bioterror Biodef 9: 156, Vol 9(1)
  • DOI: 10.4172/2157-2526.1000156
Fahad Nazir Chaudhry*Muhammad Faheem MalikMubashar Hussain and Nayab Asif
Department of Zoology, University of Gujrat, Hafiz Hayat Campus, Pakistan
*Corresponding Author: Fahad Nazir Chaudhry, Department of Zoology, University of Gujrat, Hafiz Hayat Campus, Gujrat, Pakistan, Tel: + 410-735-6409, Email: 

Received Date: Apr 22, 2017 / Accepted Date: Jul 26, 2017 / Published Date: Jul 31, 2017

Abstract

This study was conducted at University of Gujrat during 2017 to 2018 as a term paper for Master of Philosophy. The data regarding use of Insects as Biological Weapons was reviewed and compiled as a review paper from various published articles of international reputed journals annual/environmental reports of recognized organization and e-books. Use of entomological weapons is a wide field of research. Insects were used as biological weapons from ancient times and this concept is very old. Different insects can be used for this purpose by different ways. Insects can be used as biological weapons against crops, animals and human beings. Insects may be used as direct pests against crop or they may be used as vectors to spread diseases in animals and human beings. In both cases their effects are devastating. House Flies, Oriental Rat Flea, Colorado potato beetle, Ticks, screw worm larvae are the examples of some insects which can be used as biological weapons. Use of biological weapons in war against humans is however illegal.

 View PDF Download PDF

Keywords: Biological weapons; Entomological warfare; Agro terrorism and Legal status

Introduction

This concept of using insects as biological weapons is very old and even today research on this topic is carried out by many countries. In 14th century in Asia Minor plague which was spread through fleas also known as black death was the on the of earliest event of using insect as biological weapons it was used in Crimean against the city of Kaffa [1]. Another earliest use of insects as biological weapons by earliest humans was the use of bees for direct attack [2,3]. Japan and many other countries were accused of using Entomological warfare in World War 2. The only verified use of Entomological warfare on large scale is by Japanese against Chinese in World War 2. It is type of biological warfare [4]. In EW insect are used as a direct attack or used as vectors to spread disease through specific biological agent [5,6].

History

Insects are being used as biological weapons since ancient times. In 14th century fleas are used to spread plague against the city of Kaffa in Asia Minor [1]. In World War 2 Germans used Colorado beetle against enemy crops [7]. Japanese also used plague infected fleas and cholera infected flies against Chinese in World War 2 [5,8]. Many techniques are developed by soviets during cold war era to transmit diseases like foot and mouth disease using ticks. But however they did not used them against any country [9]. Similarly during Cold war USA also developed a laboratory capable of producing millions of yellow fever infected mosquitos to attack soviets and they also did experiment on their survivability if dropped from plane [7,10].

Biological Weapons

It is use of Living organisms like Viruses, Bacteria, Fungi, protozoa and insects or their toxins to cause disease or kill humans, animals and plants.

Entomological Warfare

It is use of insects to attack enemy. It is type of biological warfare in which insects are used as biological weapons. Different insects can be used by different ways in entomological warfare [4].

Different Ways to Use Insects as Biological Weapons

EW can be used by 3 different ways [5]. For this purpose insects are first infected with pathogens then they are dispersed on an area which is to be targeted. These insects act as a vector and infect particular animal or people of targeted area. In second type insects are directly used to destroy crops. In this case insects may not cause damage by pathogens or by acting as a vector. In third type uninfected insects are directly used as a direct attack on enemy like bees [5].

Agro Terrorism

It is the destruction or disruption of food and agriculture industry by using pant pathogens or pests.

Colorado Potato Beetle

It is major potato pest and its female can lay up to 800 eggs. It has orange and yellow body with five strips on its elytra [11]. It is similar to false potato beetle. It is native to Colorado and Mexico [12]. With the passage of time Colorado potato beetle have become resistant to and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane,other major pesticides classes [11,13]. Colorado potato beetle was also produced in large number by Germans during World War 2 to destroy enemy food sources [7]. They released 54000 Colorado beetles in south Frankfurt to check their effect [14]. French entomologists also concluded that Colorado beetle can be used as biological weapon against enemy crops [7]. During Cold war CIA was also blamed to use it against soviet crops [15,16]. 15000 Colorado beetles are sent by USA to Britain in 1942 to study them as a biological weapon [14].

Oriental Rat Flea

It is the vector of murine typhus and bubonic plague, and these diseases are transmitted from one flea generation to the next by their eggs [17]. Japan used these fleas on large scale as a biological weapon against Chinese in Word War 2. This program was let by Lt. General Shirō Ishii [5]. These plague fleas was dropped by low flying panes on the city of Changde and caused plague which resulted in 500,000 death of Chinese [5,8].

House Fly

House fly can act as a lethal biological weapon. It is vector of up 100 different kinds of pathogens which can causes diseases like cholera, typhoid, salmonellosis, anthrax, tuberculosis, ophthalmic, bacillary dysentery and parasitic worms. It is also important vector of different viruses like poliomyelitis, enteroviruses and viral hepatitis [18-20]. Some strains of house fly are also resistant to many kinds of pesticides commonly used [21,22]. Japanese also used cholera infected flies as an entomological weapon against Chinese to spread disease during World War 2 [5].

Ticks

Ticks can also be used as biological weapon to spread different diseases in poultry and livestock and humans. They are the carrier of many bacteria, protozoan and viruses [23]. Aegyptianellosis is a common disease found in poultry caused by Argus spp. of ticks. It spread from one bird to another [24]. Similarly cattle fever tick is a vector of Babesia bigemina which causes cattle fever. Babesia bovis can also be transmitted by this tick. Babesiosis causes $3 billion annual losses to U.S. cattle industry ever year in early 20th century [23]. During Cold War era Soviet Union developed techniques to transmit diseases like foot and mouth disease using ticks. Avian ticks are also used by them to transmit Chlamydophila psittaci in chickens [9]. In humans they are responsible for causing rickettsialpox, typhus, African tick bite fever, Boutonneuse fever, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Queensland tick typhus, Flinders Island spotted fever, Colorado tick fever, Q fever, tick-borne meningoencephalitis and Ehrlichiosis [25].

Mosquitos

Mosquitos can also be used as biological weapon to cause disease in birds, animals and humans. They are the vectors of different viruses and parasites. Viral diseases include Dengue fever, chikungunya and yellow fever which are mostly caused by Aedes aegyptus [26]. Similarly malaria is caused by protozoan called plasmodium [27]. During cold war USA made a laboratory which can produce 100 million yellow fever infected mosquitos to attack Soviet Union [7]. In 1955 United States dropped 300,000 yellow fever infected mosquitos during operation big buzz to check their survivability [10].

Caterpillars

Caterpillar is the larvae of order Lepidoptera members which include butterflies and moths. Sawflies larvae are also known as caterpillar [28]. Most caterpillars are herbivorous and agricultural pests [29]. They cause damage by eating leaves and many species have become resistant to many pesticides [30]. In 1990 USA spent 6.5 million dollars on research to use caterpillars as biological weapon against crops [31].

Black Flies

They are 3 to 6 mm in size small robust flies with short wings and humped thorax. They are also known as turkey gnats and buffalo gnats. The feed on the blood of poultry and cattle. If flies attack in large number they cause death of animal. Death is caused in many cases due to acute toxaemia. Productivity is even reduced by low population of flies. They are also vectors of protozoans (Leucocytozoon) which cause leucocytozoonosis in poultry and filarial nematodes (Onchocerca) which cause bovine onchocerciasis [23,32-34]. In human black flies transmit onchocerciasis they are vectors of parasitic nematode Onchocerca volvulus . The parasite lives in the skin of human and is transmitted when flies take meal during feeding so they can also be used as biological weapon to transmit disease in humans, poultry and cattle [35].

Biting Midges

They are 1 to 4 mm long flies which belong to order Diptera. They are also known as punkies, sand-flies and no-see-ums [36]. They are persistent and vicious biters [23]. They are vectors of arboviruses and different non-viral pathogens [37,38]. They are vectors of virus that cause blue tongue in cattle and in sheep. In cattle epizootic haemorrhagic disease is also caused by them. In poultry they spread blood protozoans and equine onchoceriasis [23]. So artificially infected biting midges colonies can be used to spread disease among cattle and poultry.

Horse Flies and Deer Flies

They can also be used as biological weapons as they are livestock’s major pest especially cattle transmitting different diseases in them. They are robust and large in size. They have blade like mouth parts which are designed by nature to inflict deep bleeding wounds [23,39]. They can transmit diseases like bovine leukemia, infectious anemia, hog cholera, Trypanosoma sp. Protozoans and Elaeophora sp. Nematodes [23,40].

Warble Fly

They are large flies which are parasites of cattle. They are also known as gad flies, bomb flies or heel flies. Their larva is called wolves or cattle grub. Some species larvae also invade human tissues. They are large hairy orange to yellow in colour and bee like in appearance. The adults are free living and have vestigial mouth parts [41].

Warble fly larvae which is known cattle grub can be used as biological weapon as in 1976 U.S. alone faced estimated $360 million losses due cattle grub. When tissue invading cattle grub larvae reaches to oesophagus and spinal cord they cause paralysis [23]. In human H. bovis species larvae cause disease called intracerebral myiasis in which invasion of intracerebral tissues takes place. Symptoms of this disease include intracerebral hematoma and convulsions [42]. H. tarandi , which is a parasite of caribou is responsible for human eye myiasis which cause glaucoma, uveitis, and retinal detachment [43]. So warble flies if produced in large scale in laboratory can be used as antilivestock biological weapon.

Screw Worm Fly

Screw worm fly can also be used as biological weapon against livestock animals. It is parasitic fly whose larvae infests on open wounds of warm blooded animals [44]. Their larvae attack only healthy living tissues of their host. It is major pest of cattle and other livestock animals [23]. Screw worm can cause tissue loss, vital organ destruction and even death in extreme cases [45]. Screw worm female can lay up to 3000 eggs in her lifecycle and travel up to 200 km in the search of host [46].

Legal Status of Entomological Weapons

Insect vectors are not mentioned in the text of Biological and Toxic Weapons Convention (BWC) of 1972. However vectors are covered in treaty [47]. Use of vectors in armed conflict for hostile purposes is banned by article 1 of BWC [47,48]. So BWC covers insect vectors [49]. However the use of uninfected insects against crops is not clear [50].

Conclusion and Recommendations

Use of insects as biological weapons is very cheap and effective warfare. They can easily be used to spread disease among enemy and to destroy enemy crops and livestock. But unlike conventional weapons they act slowly and their use in war is illegal and considered as war crime so there should be laws and regulations to prohibit their proliferation or to be used in war. There also should be check and balance to prevent biological weapons going into hands of terrorists and to be used to spread terrorism. Airport security and export and import security should also be increased so that biological weapons may not be smuggled from one country to another for this purpose there should be entomological experts in anti-terrorism investigation teams, borders and airport security teams.

References

Citation: Chaudhary FN, Malik MF, Hussain M, Asif N (2017) Insects as Biological Weapons. J Bioterror Biodef 9: 156. Doi: 10.4172/2157-2526.1000156

Copyright: © 2018 Chaudhary FN, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Wuhan insect virus 34

Taxonomy ID: 1923737 (for references in articles please use NCBI:txid1923737)
current name

Wuhan insect virus 34

NCBI BLAST name: viruses
Rank: species
Genetic code: Translation table 1 (Standard)
Host: invertebrates
Lineage( full )
VirusesRiboviriaunclassified Riboviriaunclassified RNA viruses ShiM-2016
   Entrez records   
Database name Direct links
Nucleotide 2
Protein 4
Genome 1
PubMed Central 2
Gene 3
Identical Protein Groups 2
Assembly 1
Taxonomy 1

 

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GOLD: Go0371155 organism-specific Genomes On Line Database
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2738542825: Wuhan insect virus 34 CC64594 organism-specific Integrated Microbial Genomes
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Reference: How to cite this resource - Schoch CL, et al. NCBI Taxonomy: a comprehensive update on curation, resources and tools. Database (Oxford). 2020: baaa062. [Full text] [PubMed]