N.B: To our knowlege the U.S. Government (IG of the DoD) has not (yet?) released the findings of the investigation in public nor delivered them to the House or Rep. Chris Smith. (latest check April 2021)

UPDATE 06. October 2021: Drug treatment for Lyme disease could lead to its eradication

UPDATE 20. October 2020: Lyme disease may be a biological weapon developed by the U.S. military

UPDATE 26. August 2019: Was Lyme Disease Created as a Bioweapon?

ICYMI: New Book Exposes Secret Lyme Disease & Bioweapons Link

PROLOGUE: In the context of Lyme disease also one Pentagon funded bio-labortory near Gulu in Northern Uganda close to the border with South Sudan has become known to carry out research on the ticks, Lyme Disease (Borreliosis) and other tick-born diseases.

Biological Experiments are war crimes

Article 8 of The Rome Statute of The International Criminal Court (ICC) defines biological experiments as war crimes. The US, however, is not a state party to the international treaty, and cannot be held  accountable for its war crimes at that level. 

Obama’s 2014 temporary ban on government funding for such “dual-use” research was a first step into the right direction, but the moratorium was lifted in 2017 under Trump and experiments have continued. Enhanced Potential Pandemic Pathogens (PPPs) experiments are again 'legal' for the USA in the USA or elsewhere, where the Pentagon operates such potential biowarfare labs, like in Ukraine, where the DoD Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) has funded 11 bio-laboratories and in Georgia.

Bioweapons: Lyme Disease, Weaponized Ticks

By Makia Freeman - 03. August 2019

Bioweapons, specifically Lyme Disease and bioweaponized ticks, were in the news recently when US Congressman Chris Smith (R-NJ) introduced Amendment 116-19 which was subsequently passed by the US House of Congress on July 11th, 2019. The US House ordered an investigation to determine whether the DoD (Department of Defense) experimented with ticks and other insects between 1950 and 1975 to create bioweapons (biological weapons). Smith, who has a long history of bringing awareness to Lyme Disease, said he was inspired to pursue the matter after reading a book by Kris Newby entitled Bitten: The Secret History of Lyme Disease and Biological Weapons published this year.

The fact of the matter is that the US Government and Military have a long history of experimentation with bioweapons, some of which has caused fatal consequences. It is time for the truth to come out.

What is Lyme Disease?

Lyme Disease is named after the small US town of Lyme (Old Lyme), Connecticut. In 1950, a mysterious disease first broke out in Lyme which defied textbook descriptions and which was characterized by strange symptoms, making it very hard to diagnose. Lyme Disease has multiple symptoms including muscle aches, joint pain, fever, chills, impaired memory and facial paralysis. If bad cases, it can lead to arthritis, nervous system disorders, heart problems and death. The most common disease spread by ticks is Lyme Disease. The CDC estimates over 300,000 people are diagnosed with the disease each year. Tellingly, 95% of US cases come from just 14 states, centered around Connecticut. Despite its severity, doctors and insurance companies have been reluctant to come out and diagnose Lyme Disease, in some cases convincing patients they were delusional to think there was something wrong with them, or changing diagnosis after the 30-day mark. This renders the 300,000 number quite meaningless. The book Bitten features a new whistleblower William Burgdorfer, after whom the bacterium that causes Lyme Disease is named (borrelia burgdorferi). Burgdorfer revealed that Lyme Disease was the result of a biological weapons program gone awry, one in which he himself participated. He reveals that the bioweapons research involved using blood-sucking insects – not just ticks (which were the best) but also fleas and mosquitoes – as vectors for the transmission of human diseases.

The Connections Among Lyme Disease, Weaponized Ticks, Plum Island, Mycoplasma, Other Hard-to-Diagnose Diseases and Bioterrorism

Now, Lyme just so happens to be right across from Plum Island, New York. And Plum Island just so happens to be a former center for biowarfare and bioweapons research. In 1897, the War Department owned Plum Island (then called Fort Terry). In 1954, the US Army officially transferred it to the USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) to be used as an animal disease laboratory, after which it was upgraded a bio-level 4 facility. What was the US Military doing there? It was experimenting with ticks and other insects to see if could create an effective bioweapon, i.e. a disease which could be carried by the insect that would then bite and infect people. Research at Plum Island dates back to just after WW2 when the USG (US Government) brought Nazi scientists into the USA under Operation Paperclip (for more background to this read 20 Declassified Files that Prove Governmental Crime and Conspiracy – Part 1). This article in the Journal of Degenerative Diseases (August 6th, 2002) quotes a source stating that 60% of people with chronic Lyme Disease are co-infected with several strains of mycoplasma. Mycoplasma are the smallest bacterial cells yet discovered, have no cell walls and can survive without oxygen (are anaerobic). Interestingly enough, the most common strain is mycoplasma fermentens. Guess what? This strain is patented by the US Army and its pathologist Dr. Shyh-Ching Lo: Pathogenic Mycoplasma, US Patent 5,242,820, issued September 7th, 1993! The article goes on connect the dots between Lyme Disease and other mysterious diseases that doctors seemed very reluctant to diagnose:

“It is becoming evident that any microbe that has been ‘modified’ is considered ‘off limits’ for treatment and any physician that takes these chronic infections seriously, is targeted for harassment. This same pathogen is found in Gulf War Illness, Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue patients! Could this be the main reason why the symptoms of all these diseases overlap to such a degree and all seem to have emerged around the same time period?

It seems very coincidental that …

1) Lyme disease is endemic to all land areas surrounding Plum Island.

2) Many Lyme and Gulf War Illness patients are infected with the same genetically engineered organism (mycoplasma fermentens) created and patented by the US Government.

3) Lyme Disease and Gulf War Illness share almost identical symptoms.

4) Doxycycline is one of the drugs of choice for both diseases.

5) Both sets of patients are being denied antibiotic treatment.

6) I spoke with Dr. Thomas, the previous Director of Plum Island, who admitted that an Iraqi researcher (who has since been murdered) did his graduate training at Plum Island, specifically involving different strains of mycoplasma. He went back to Iraq and headed up the mycoplasma research program at the University of Baghdad. I asked Dr. Thomas if Plum Island ever worked with mycoplasmas in general. She denied this at the beginning but gradually admitted researching 7 different different strains. I asked if Plum Island researchers ever worked with mycoplasma fermentens. She was immediately familiar with that particular genetically engineered strain although she did deny that Plum Island researchers ever worked with it.

7) Yale University often works with Plum Island on various projects and they are in close proximity to each other.

8) Yale, again, is one of the main opponents of long term antibiotic treatment for Lyme Disease in spite of it’s obvious benefits.”

In typical fashion, it took a long time for the USG to admit that Lyme Disease was real and that Lyme Disease was a possible bioweapon. In 2005, the University of Texas at San Antonio opened a new research lab for bioterrorism. It was reported that the facility would be there “to study such diseases as anthrax, tularemia, cholera, lyme disease, desert valley fever and other parasitic and fungal diseases. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention identified these diseases as potential bioterrorism agents.”

Bioweapons and Nazi Paperclip Scientist Dr. Erich Traub

One famous scientist brought in under Operation Paperclip was Dr. Erich Traub, who worked under Heinrich Himmler, the 2nd highest top-ranking Nazi just under Hitler. During WW2, Traub oversaw a program where the Nazis sprayed occupied Soviet territory with viruses from planes. Traub was instrumental in setting up research on Plum Island. He worked for the US Biological Warfare Program from 1949-1953, during which time he consulted with CIA and also worked at Fort Detrick, Maryland, another bioweapons center. Traub is mentioned in this Truthstream Media video and also in Michael Carroll’s book Lab 257: The Disturbing Story of the Government’s Secret Plum Island Germ Laboratory. In that book, Carroll claims he had a source who worked on Plum Island in the 1950s. This source:

“recalls that animal handlers and a scientist released ticks outdoors on the island. “They called him the Nazi scientist, when they came in, in 1951 – they were inoculating these ticks.””

History of USG Bioweapons

Weaponizing bugs is an old idea. Before and during WW2, Japan had an infamous military organization named Unit 731 (covered here) which weaponized insects, typically fleas infected with plague and cholera, which they used against Chinese civilians. When the Japanese lost WW2 to the America, US officials later cut the Japanese a deal whereby their scientific “research” was handed over in exchange for leniency (same deal the US cut with the Nazis via Paperclip). After WW2, the USG embarked on a host of bioweapon experiments upon its own people:

  • Operation Sea-Spray (1950): this was a secret US Navy experiment where 2 bacteria, serratia marcescens and bacillus globigii, were sprayed over the San Francisco Bay Area in California;
  • Norfolk Naval Supply Center experiments (1951): those running this test dispersed fungal spores to see how they would infect workers unpacking crates in this base in Virginia. Most of the workers were African-American. The plan was to test if they were more susceptible to fungal disease than Caucasians;
  • Spraying Chemicals to Test Potential of Biological Weapons (1950s): in 1997, the National Research Council revealed that the USG used chemicals to test the potential of biological weapons in the 1950s. Zinc cadmium sulphide was dispersed by plane in open air testing. It was sprayed over many American cities, including St Louis in Missouri and Minneapolis in Minnesota;
  • Operation Big Itch (1954): this experiment (Black Vault docs here) was designed to learn if fleas could be loaded into bombs. It turns out they could. The tests happened just a few years after the Soviets accused the US of dropping canisters full of insects infected with plague and cholera in Korea and China during the Korean War (just as Japan had done against China);
  • Project 112 (1962): Then US Secretary of Defense, Robert McNamara, authorized this new program which greatly expanded bioweapons research. One of the most well-known and nefarious tests was in 1966 on the New York subway. Scientists filled light bulbs with bacillus globigii  (same bacterium as used in Operation Sea-Spray) and smashed them open on the train tracks. The bacteria traveled all around the subway system, with thousands of people breathing them in.

Final Thoughts

If you are new to this topic, the truth revealed in this article may be horrifying. I am reminded of a quote by the late William Blum, who said that “no matter how paranoid or conspiracy-minded you are, what the government is actually doing is worse than you imagine.” We have to keep digging, keep questioning and keep researching to uncover what is happening. This recent amendment may go nowhere, however at least it was a newsworthy event for the MSM, which serves to shine some focus the outrageous deeds committed by a government that claims to represent us. Share the truth far and wide.

Author:

Makia Freeman is the editor of alternative media / independent news site The Freedom Articles and senior researcher at ToolsForFreedom.com. Makia is on Steemit and FB. This article was originally published on The Freedom Articles.

Sources

https://chrissmith.house.gov/uploadedfiles/final_lyme_ig_amendment.pdf

https://chrissmith.house.gov/uploadedfiles/2019-07-11_final_ndaa_lyme_ig_amendment_speech.pdf

Bitten: The Secret History of Lyme Disease and Biological Weapons (2019) by Kris Newby

https://www.cdc.gov/lyme/stats/humancases.html

https://thefreedomarticles.com/20-declassified-files-gov-crime-p1/

https://www.samento.com.ec/sciencelib/4lyme/plumisland.html

https://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=/netahtml/PTO/srchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=5,242,820.PN.&OS=PN/5,242,820&RS=PN/5,242,820

https://www.myplainview.com/news/article/UTSA-opens-new-bioterrorism-lab-8579748.php

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VT6gCqulCok

Lab 257: The Disturbing Story of the Government’s Secret Plum Island Germ Laboratory (2004) by Michael Carroll

https://thefreedomarticles.com/20-declassified-files-gov-crime-p2/

https://theconversation.com/the-us-has-a-history-of-testing-biological-weapons-on-the-public-were-infected-ticks-used-too-120638

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4487829/

https://www.nytimes.com/1994/01/25/opinion/the-worry-germ-warfare-the-target-us.html

https://www8.nationalacademies.org/onpinews/newsitem.aspx?RecordID=5739

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK233494/

https://documents.theblackvault.com/documents/biological/bigitch.pdf

Featured image is from The Freedom Articles

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TICK BORNE DISEASE WORKING GROUP 2018 REPORT (PDF)

===

MUST READ, because Bill Gates wants to soon deliver 'vaccines' by mosquitoes

Quoted from the "patent":

Technical Problem 

A mosquito delivery system for lethal and non-lethal applications is not available. If such a delivery system enabling legal non-lethal uses were available, it could later be adapted for military uses should legal restraints be altered or eliminated. For example, one unquestionably legal application of the toxic mosquito delivery system is immunization made possible by adding a toxin, that is, a genetically modified bacterium capable of activating a person's immune system to fight malaria, to mosquitoes. Those contaminated mosquitoes could be aerially released to immunize at risk populations against malaria. 

Throughout military history, the health of one's troops has always been an important determining factor. Soldiers on the ground can only properly function if they are not ill, sick, or dying from a deadly virus or pathogen. A soldier, whose immune system is trying to fight a bug or pathogen, will have no energy or ability to fight other soldiers. Sickness can be a very valuable military tool that can be more devastating than the most up-to-date military guns and equipment. 

Since making the enemy troops sick is an important military objective, one must then look at what means are available 

to get the pathogens, germs, and viruses to the enemy. In today's highly-advanced military technology, there are various types of Small robotic devices that can try to get sickness agents close to enemy troops. Even with all of the Sophisticated computer chips and microprocessors, all of these high-tech devices cannot come close to the miraculous technology of nature. Nature has a very highly technical device that can not only carry a sickness agent to the area where the enemy may be located, but these devices can seek out and find the enemy even if they are behind fortifications and are in hiding. 

This miracle of technology can carry a sickness agent,covertly go to the enemy area, specifically find the individual enemy, and can contaminate the enemy with absolutely no warning. This ultra high-tech device of nature is called a mosquito. If only there was a way for military planners to harvest and use the power of the mosquito, they could easily sicken and kill large masses of enemy troops without even a single shot being fired.

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UPDATES:

Drug treatment for Lyme disease could lead to its eradication

By Michael Le Page - 06. October 2021

 

Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria

Microscopic image of Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria - Cultura Creative RF/Alamy

The discovery that a chemical is deadly to the bacterium that causes Lyme disease but harmless to animals might allow the disease to be eradicated in the wild.

“Lyme disease is well-positioned to be eradicated,” says Kim Lewis at Northeastern University in Boston. “We are gearing up, the first field trial will be next summer.”

Lyme disease is caused by a bacterium called Borrelia burgdorferi that lurks in wild mice. Ticks that feed on the mice become infected and can infect other animals, including people.

The disease is a growing problem in North AmericaEurope and Asia. It initially causes a characteristic “bullseye” rash and a flu-like illness. If untreated, it can lead to serious long-term problems, such as Lyme arthritis.

At present, it is treated with antibiotics such as doxycycline that kill a wide range of bacteria. However, this disrupts the gut microbiome, causing symptoms such as diarrhoea, and can also lead to more antibiotic resistance.

Now, Lewis’s team has found that a compound called hygromycin A is completely harmless to animals and has little effect on most bacteria, but is extremely deadly to spirochaete bacteria such as B. burgdorferi.

Spirochaete bacteria have a corkscrew shape that enables them to burrow into tissues. They also cause diseases such as syphilis, says Lewis. “They are pretty nasty pathogens.”

In animal tests, the team didn’t observe any harmful effects of hygromycin no matter how high the dose. “It is unusually safe,” says Lewis.

A company called FlightPath is now filing in the US for the initial go-ahead required before the chemical can be tested in people.

Hygromycin could also potentially be used as a treatment for syphilis, particularly because this bacterial infection is evolving resistance to standard treatments.

What’s more, Lewis’s team has shown that feeding baits laced with hygromycin to mice can clear B. burgdorferi infections. In theory, dropping such baits could eradicate Lyme disease from whole areas or even entire countries.

A field trial done a decade ago with doxycycline baits was successful, says Lewis. But the widespread use of the chemical for this purpose is undesirable because it could lead to many microbes evolving antibiotic resistance.

By contrast, Lewis’s studies suggest it is extremely difficult for B. burgdorferi to evolve resistance to hygromycin. The chemical resembles essential nutrients that spirochaetes cannot make themselves and take up using a specific transporter, so mutations that block the take-up of hygromycin would also deprive spirochaetes of these nutrients.

Lewis says his team isn’t the first to discover the value of hygromycin. It was studied as a potential treatment for a pig disease in the 1980s but abandoned.

Vaccines against Lyme disease are also being developed, but eradicating the disease would be an even better option.

 

Read more: Lyme disease is set to explode and we still don’t have a vaccine

Journal reference: CellDOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2021.09.011

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Lyme disease may be a biological weapon developed by the U.S. military

By  - 02. October 2020

You probably know that Lyme disease comes from ticks, but if you don’t personally suffer from it, you’d be forgiven for not knowing much more about it. However, there is one aspect of this disease that everyone should be concerned about, and that’s the possibility that it originated as a biological weapon developed by our own military.

Sadly, it’s not as implausible as you might like to believe. In fact, the House of Representatives has ordered an investigation into whether the Department of Defense carried out experiments involving ticks and other insects as biological weapons.

It was part of an amendment introduced by Representative Chris Smith of New Jersey, who said that he was inspired by books and articles indicating that research was carried out at American government facilities in Plum Island, New York, and Fort Detrick, Maryland, to turn ticks into bioweapons.

It calls for the Inspector General of the Department of Defense to look into whether these types of experiments were conducted between 1950 and 1975. Some of the questions posed by Smith include who ordered the program and whether any diseased ticks were released.

Dr. Willy Burgdorfer, who discovered the bacterial pathogen that causes Lyme disease back in 1975, was a bioweapons specialist for the military. There is evidence suggesting that he and others in his lab injected insects like ticks with pathogens that could bring about disease, disability and death.

Should the Inspector General discover these experiments did occur, the bill states that they must prepare a report on the scope of the research for the House and Senate Armed Services committees and explain whether any of the insects involved in the experiments were released intentionally or by accident.

It is also hoped that this exploration could yield some information that could help Lyme Disease sufferers.

Lyme Disease Association President Pat Smith said: “We need to find out: is there anything in this research that was supposedly done that can help us to find information that is germane to patient health and combating the spread of the disease?”

Lyme disease cases are rising in the U.S. and worldwide

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne illness in the U.S., with as many as 437,000 new cases being reported each year.

It is spread through infected ticks, and some of the symptoms include a bulls-eye rash around a tick bite, joint pain, impaired movement, heart palpitations and flu-like symptoms such as chills, neck stiffness, headaches, body aches and fatigue.

When left untreated, it can cause nervous system problems, arthritis and heart problems, the CDC reports. Numbers have been climbing in recent years, with the confirmed and probable cases reported to the CDC in 2017 representing a 17 percent rise over 2016’s numbers.

Unfortunately, for many patients, it ends up being a chronic disease that they have to battle throughout their lifetime. The antibiotics currently given for Lyme disease will sometimes help, but they can also cause problems such as gut dysfunction and deadly superbugs.

Since there aren’t any reliable or safe treatments for Lyme disease, prevention is essential. When you’re hiking in a wooded area, it’s a good idea to wear long sleeves and pants, and be sure to carry out a tick check all over your body when you return. If you do come across any ticks, pull them out slowly and steadily and then flush them down the toilet.

The origins of Lyme disease have always been the subject of speculation, and we are skeptical but hopeful that this investigation will provide some much-needed clarity. Governments around the world regularly carry out these types of explorations, so it would be disappointing but not too surprising to learn that the disease could have been largely avoided.

Sources for this article include:

NaturalHealth365.com

Edition.CNN.com

===

Was Lyme Disease Created as a Bioweapon?

By Nathan Chandler - 26. August 2019

Ticks are vectors for all sorts of nasty germs, notably Lyme disease, the sixth-most commonly reported infectious disease in the United States, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

willy feeding ticks

        These ticks were infected with various diseases. KRIS NEWBY, MSME

Decades after it was first identified, it's still often misdiagnosedSymptoms include an expanding body rash, joint pains, fatigue, chills and fever. Could the spread of Lyme be attributable to a classified, decades-old bioweapons program — as some people claim — or are ticks just as good for spreading misinformation as they are for germs?

The ticks-as-weapons issue made headlines back in July 2019, thanks to the U.S. House of Representatives' Chris Smith, R-N.J., who introduced legislation directing the Department of Defense to review claims that the Pentagon researched tick-based bioweapons in the mid-20th century. (The amendment passed.)

Smith said he was inspired to do this by "a number of books and articles suggesting that significant research had been done at U.S. government facilities including Fort Detrick, Maryland and Plum Island, New York to turn ticks and other insects into bioweapons."

"With Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases exploding in the United States — with an estimated 300,000 to 437,000 new cases diagnosed each year and 10-20 percent of all patients suffering from chronic Lyme disease — Americans have a right to know whether any of this is true," Smith said during a debate on the House floor. "And have these experiments caused Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases to mutate and to spread?"

Congressman Smith's legislative actions were inspired partly by "Bitten: The Secret History of Lyme Disease and Biological Weapons," a book written by Kris Newby, a Stanford University science writer who also served as a senior producer on a Lyme disease documentary titled "Under Our Skin."

letter from Willy Burgdorfer

A letter to G.E. Oliver, from Willy Burgdorfer, talking about running experiments with infected ticks. KRIS NEWBY, MSME

In the book, Newby points out that in 1953, the Biological Warfare Laboratories at Fort Detrick created a program investigating ways to spread anti-personnel agents via arthropods (insects, crustaceans, and arachnids), with the idea that slow-acting agents wouldn't immediately incapacitate soldiers, but rather make the area dangerous for a long period of time.

"The premise of my book is that weaponized ticks full of 'who knows what' were accidentally released in the region of Long Island Sound," says Newby by email. While she notes that she was unable to prove definitively Lyme bacteria was used as a bioweapon, "there are plenty of shocking discoveries and scientific leads to lift the veil on the mysteries surrounding tick diseases and the government's response to them." Her book says that scientist Willy Burgdorfer (who is credited with discovering the pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi that causes Lyme disease) was directly involved in a number of bioweapons programs. But she stops short of saying that his research was necessarily related to a Lyme disease weapon that was accidentally released into the wild.

The Case Against Lyme Disease as a Bioweapon

Given America's ugly history regarding unethical research, it's fair to ask whether Lyme was inadvertently — or purposely — introduced into the general population. After all, the government conducted hundreds of germ warfare tests and unethical experimentson civilians in the mid-20th century.

But most experts say there's nothing to investigate. Philip J. Baker, executive director of the American Lyme Disease Foundation, wrote a lengthy document debunking claims regarding Lyme disease bioweapons research. In it, he established that both Lyme and the ticks that spread it were prevalent in the Northeast thousands of years before Europeans colonized the continent.

"I think it would be a complete waste of the taxpayers' money for Congress to waste its time investigating science fiction," Baker says via email. His article notes that pathogens considered for bioweapons are usually ones that cause death or serious illness in a short period of time after release. That does not describe the Lyme disease pathogen.

Also, the idea that the government tried to weaponize ticks with Lyme in the '50s and '60s doesn't fit the disease timeline. In an article published in The Conversation, Sam Telford, a professor of infectious disease and global health at Tufts University, pointed out that Lyme wasn't even discovered until 1981. That's when Willy Burgdorfer finally pinpointed spiral-shaped bacteria called spirochetes, which were ultimately named as the cause of Lyme.

"The real nail in the coffin for the idea that Lyme disease in the U.S. was somehow accidentally released from military bioweapons research is to be found in the fact that the first American case of Lyme disease turns out not to have been from Old Lyme, Connecticut, in the early 1970s," Telford wrote. "In 1969, a physician identified a case in Spooner, Wisconsin, in a patient who had never traveled out of that area. And Lyme disease was found infecting people in 1978 in northern California. How could an accidental release take place over three distant locations? It couldn't."

Growing deer populations (which spread deer ticks carrying Lyme); reforestation (particularly in the northeastern U.S. where most cases of Lyme are reported); and suburbs encroaching on those forests (which brings humans into close contact with ticks and tick-infested wildlife) are the primary reasons that Lyme is becoming more prevalent — not a top-secret bioweapons program, Telford said.

Weaponizing Ticks

Provided an organization wanted to weaponize ticks, it's certainly possible. But it's not easy.

"Weaponizing almost any type of biological agent takes a great deal of expertise," says Kerry Clark, a professor of epidemiology and environmental health at the University of North Florida via email. "How much expertise depends on the specific agent, its entire ecology and epidemiology including pathogenic properties, infectivity, pathogenicity, virulence, and in this case, its ability to survive in, and be transmitted, by ticks."

Clark adds that ticks aren't an ideal choice as a biological weapons delivery system. Ticks don't typically thrive in urban environments (where people are concentrated) and they are slow feeders so someone might notice and remove them before they can do their job.

"One would also have to rear and infect large numbers of ticks, and then somehow deliver them to a group of humans in a way that large numbers of people are exposed and actually bitten in a short period of time. Dropping infected ticks from an airplane or drone doesn't sound like an efficient way to incapacitate a population with a bioweapon," he says. Further, "Lyme borreliosis can cause very severe illness in some cases, but may not quickly and efficiently incapacitate victims. Unless the agent was modified significantly from naturally occurring strains, it wouldn't cause high mortality, and might take months to cause serious illness.

"Lastly, we appear to have an epidemic of Lyme-like illness in our country. I believe that a large proportion of these illnesses are caused by infections, and many may result from tick bites. Yet, because of the array of symptoms and difficulty in confirming an exact diagnosis with objective laboratory evidence, I would caution that all the illnesses that resemble Lyme disease may not be specifically caused by Borrelia burgdorferi."

They may be caused by other tickborne pathogens, Clark says. Or by infectious agents encountered in our environment in other ways besides tick bites.

Perhaps the takeaway is that, given the seriousness of tickborne illnesses, the existence — or non-existence — of a murky government conspiracy and cover-up doesn't really matter as much as the fact that patients are still sick and the disease is still spreading. What we really need, says Clark, is, "to invest significant additional funding to investigate the true causes of these illnesses, and to develop better diagnostics and treatments."

NOW THAT'S INTERESTING

During World War II, Japan notoriously used plague-infested insects to spread disease, particularly in China. Some 20,000 Chinese died from this type of entomological warfare, which was carried out primarily by the infamous Unit 731.

===

 “I never accept anything about the Government until it has been officially denied; then I know it is true.”

“cautious observer” from Transvaal, South Africa - 1897 (reportedly also at least once stated by Otto von Bismark).

Now, mainstream-media are today an arm of government and the WaPo made some considerable effort to deny:

No, Lyme disease is not an escaped military bioweapon, despite what conspiracy theorists say

By Sam Telford - 11. August 2019

Could Lyme disease in the United States be the result of an accidental release from a secret bioweapons experiment? Could the military have specifically engineered the Lyme disease bacterium to be more insidious and destructive — and then let it somehow escape the lab and spread in nature? Is this why 300,000 Americans are diagnosed annually with this potentially debilitating disease?

It’s an old conspiracy theory enjoying a resurgence with lots of sensational headlines and tweets. Even Congress has ordered that the Pentagon must reveal whether it weaponized ticks.

And it’s not true.

GOP lawmaker thinks rise in Lyme disease is due to a secret tick experiment. A scientist squashes that idea

Ticks can indeed carry infectious agents that could be used as biological weapons. Military research has long focused on ticks. Sites around Long Island Sound, near the military’s Plum Island research lab, were some of the first places where the American Lyme disease epidemic was identified.

But there was no release of the Lyme disease agent or any other onto American soil, accidental or otherwise, by the military.

I started working on Lyme disease in 1985. As part of my doctoral thesis, I investigated whether museum specimens of ticks and mice contained evidence of infection with the bacterial agent of Lyme disease before the first known American human cases in the mid-1970s.

Working with microbiologist David Persing, we found that ticks from the South Fork of Long Island collected in 1945 were infected. Subsequent studies found that mice from Cape Cod, collected in 1896, were infected.

So decades before Lyme was identified — and before military scientists could have altered or weaponized it — the bacterium that causes it was living in the wild.

That alone is proof that the conspiracy theory is wrong. But there are plenty of other lines of evidence that show why Lyme disease did not require the human hand changing something Mother Nature had nurtured.

An unlikely bioweapon

I teach a graduate course in biodefense. Biowarfare, the use of biological agents to cause harm, was once an interest of the U.S. military and that of many other countries. One of the most important characteristics of a biowarfare agent is its ability to quickly disable target soldiers. The bacteria that cause Lyme disease are not in this category.

Many of the agents that biowarfare research has focused on are transmitted by ticks, mosquitoes or other arthropods: plague, tularemia, Q fever, Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever, Eastern equine encephalitis or Russian spring summer encephalitis. In all of them, the early disease is very debilitating, and the fatality rate can be great; 30 percent of Eastern equine encephalitis cases dieEpidemic typhus killed 3 million people during World War I.

Lyme disease does make some people very sick but many have just a flulike illness that their immune system fends off. Untreated cases may subsequently develop arthritis or neurological issues. The disease is rarely lethal. Lyme has a week-long incubation period — too slow for an effective bioweapon.

Even though European physicians had described cases of Lyme disease in the first half of the 20th century, the cause had not been identified. There was no way the military could have manipulated it because they did not know what “it” was. None of us knew — until 1981, when the late Willy Burgdorfer, a medical entomologist, made his serendipitous discovery.

Burgdorfer's discovery

Burgdorfer had done his graduate studies in Switzerland in the late 1940s, investigating the biology of tick-borne relapsing fever, a bacterial disease that can spread from animals to people. During the course of that work, he developed new methods to detect infection in ticks and to infect ticks with specific doses of a pathogen. Those methods are still used today by people like me.

Eventually, Burgdorfer moved to the Rocky Mountain Laboratories in Montana, an outpost of the U.S. Public Health Service and National Institutes of Health — at the time, the world center for tick research

Burgdorfer’s unique expertise was studying how microbial agents were adapted to the internal tissues of their tick hosts, using experimental infections and microscopy. Until Lyme disease came along, his reputation was as the world’s expert on the life cycle of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF).

It was RMSF that led Burgdorfer to the cause of Lyme disease. He had been working to better understand RMSF on Long Island in New York. Why were dog ticks, the acknowledged vector, uninfected even in areas where people were getting sick? He knew that a new tick, the deer tick, had recently become common on Long Island and been incriminated as a disease vector.

So Burgdorfer asked his colleague Jorge Benach at Stony Brook University for some deer ticks to test for the presence of RMSF bacteria. Benach happened to have some from nearby Shelter Island, N.Y., that he sent along.

In testing the “blood” of the deer ticks, Burgdorfer did not find RMSF bacteria. But he did find spiral-shaped bacteria called spirochetes. The spirochetes were similar to what he had studied as a graduate student: the cause of relapsing fever. If spirochetes caused relapsing fever, perhaps other spirochetes were responsible for the mysterious new Lyme arthritis for which a cause was not known.

This aha moment led to the landmark 1982 paper in Science with a question for a title: “Lyme disease — a tick-borne spirochetosis?”

Conspiracy theory vs. facts

Some have overanalyzed that Lyme disease spirochetes were first found in ticks from Shelter Island, so near Plum Island, an isolated facility used as a military research lab until 1954.

But it was just a coincidence that Benach’s Shelter Island ticks were the ones in which Burgdorfer made his serendipitous finding. By 1984, once researchers knew what to look for, Lyme disease spirochetes were found in ticks from coastal ConnecticutNew Jersey and even California.

But let’s pretend the military started working immediately on the newly found agent of Lyme disease in 1981. That’s long after Fort Terry on Plum Island was repurposed in 1954 by the Agriculture Department to study exotic animal diseases. It’s also after President Richard Nixon outlawed biowarfare research in 1969. If the bacteria was manipulated, it had to have been done after 1981 — so the conspiracy theory’s timeline just doesn’t work.

The real nail in the coffin for the idea that Lyme disease in the United States was somehow accidentally released from military bioweapons research is that the first American case of Lyme disease turns out not to have been from Old Lyme,Conn., in the early 1970s. In 1969, a physician identified a case in Spooner, Wis., in a patient who had never traveled out of that area. And Lyme disease was found infecting people in 1978 in Northern California.

How could an accidental release take place over three distant locations? It couldn’t.

Population genetics research on Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacterial agent of Lyme disease, suggest that the northeastern, Midwestern and Californian bacteria are separated by geographical barriers that prevent these populations from mixing. Had there been a lab strain, particularly one engineered to be more transmissible, that escaped within the last 50 years, there would be greater genetic similarity between these three geographic populations. There is no evidence for a recent single source — such as a release from a lab — for Lyme disease spirochetes.

The real reasons for the epidemic becoming so burdensome include reforestation, suburbanization and a failure to manage deer herds.

Conspiracy thinkers make much of the military’s interest in tick-borne infections and how it influenced top researchers. Until Lyme disease came along, the number of tick laboratories in the world could be counted on both hands.

As an acknowledged expert on ticks and the infections they transmit, it’s surely possible that Burgdorfer received funding from the military, undertook studies for them or was consulted by them. They were one of the few sources of research funds for tick projects in the period from 1950 to 1980. The overarching goal of such applied work would have been understanding the tick-related risks U.S. soldiers faced while deployed, and how to protect them.

That Burgdorfer alluded to biowarfare or biodefense programs in interviews toward the end of his life should not be construed as an admission of participation in top-secret work. I met Burgdorfer several times and was struck by his wry sense of humor. It’s my guess that his hints that there was a bigger story to what he did for the military was a prankster’s way to toy with the interviewer.

As someone who has worked for more than three decades to understand the epidemiology and ecology of Lyme disease to reduce the risk of Americans getting infected, I am appalled that this conspiracy theory is taken so seriously that Congress is now involved.

The idea that Lyme disease is due to bioweapons research gone wrong is easily disproved. Our legislators could better spend their time fighting for efforts to prevent disease instead of investigating a far-fetched story that’s based on misinterpretation and innuendo.

Sam Telford is professor of infectious disease and global health at Tufts University. This report was originally published on theconversation.com.

Read also:

Dangerous unproven treatments for ‘chronic Lyme disease’ are on the rise.

Lyme disease has now spread to all 50 states plus the District of Columbia

4 myths about ticks and how to deal with them

Comments

Hello Professor Telford – In your article you say “It’s an old conspiracy theory enjoying a resurgence and the link goes to a new book “Bitten” by Kris Newby that was published this year. 
Professor Telford, did you read the book? I’m really not sure you did. It clearly states as the end of the book on page 280 “Yet after five years of research, I wasn’t able to find verifiable documents confirming the Long Island incident.” 
There’s no conspiracy that we know of. The United States had a bioweapons program which was canceled by Richard Nixon in 1969. And during the 50s and 60s, bioweapons program personnel conducted various experiments with ticks. There is some correlation in the timing of these experiments with the rise of Lyme disease in the United States. 
Also on page 280. Kris Newby writes, “With his passing [referring to Willy Burgdorfer], the only way to know the truth is for a whistle-blower to step forward or for a classified report to be released.” 
There’s no evidence that we know of that the bioweapons program caused the rise In Lyme disease, but Congressman Chris Smith is making a valid request to investigate further because there are many many documents about this program related to ticks experiments that have not been released to the public. It’s been 50 years since the program was canceled. Let’s know more about it. Why not? 
It’s obvious there’s correlation of these tick experiments with the rise of Lyme disease. Perhaps there is causality — perhaps there is not causality – – we will have to see. 
I’m told that the IG at DoD can take a year to process such a request. Let’s see the evidence before we make any final judgments just yet. 
BTW, Bitten is a super well-written and well-cited book. Recommended reading.

I imagine Telford has read the book.  He probably just does not understand it.  As Upton Sinclair said:
“It is difficult to get a man to understand something when his salary depends upon his not understanding it.”

Telford has acknowledged in "The Conversation" that he was too busy to read the book. I am astonished that WAPO would even print this already discredited piece!! Shame on you!

Wow Robert -- you are right.   That is astonishing.  Here's the quote from "The Conversation"
https://theconversation.com/no-lyme-disease-is-not-an-escaped-military-bioweapon-despite-what-conspiracy-theorists-say-120879
Sam Telford Professor of Infectious Disease and Global Health, Tufts University 
In reply to Kris Newby 
Ms. Newby, I apologize for not reading your book…I only have so many hours in a day....

---
Professor Telford - I don't even know what to say.  You wrote an article incorrectly citing and positioning a book you didn't read.  The article was published in around 20 news outlets including WAPO. How tragic.  Sigh.

https://qr.ae/TWrnoO
For a very different view

Part 3:
On what then does Telford base his claim that Lyme disease escaping from Plum Island is a “conspiracy theory,” and therefore untrue? His case seems to be limited to these three (extremely weak) points. 
* He points out that the disease was found in ticks that predate 1954. The conspiracy theorists agree. Their point is that a more virulent strain escaped Plum Island in the mid-1970s. 
* He notes that Lyme disease is a poor choice for a bioweapon because its incubation takes a week and is not fatal, hence it would not be used to disable target soldiers. Again, that does nothing to refute any "conspiracy theory.” The claim is that the Nazis were developing a bioweapon to disable the Soviet population during World War II. No one has claimed Lyme disease is suitable for use against soldiers in battle. 
* Telford argues that Willy Burgdorfer did not publish his paper in Science until 1982, describing the Lyme disease mechanism. Therefore the earliest the military could have begun research was 1981, long after the Plum Island facility began operations in 1954. Also, since President Nixon outlawed biowarfare research in 1969, it is impossible that the military would have even considered such research in 1981. 
Beyond those three points, the article simply asserts that the “conspiracy theories” are not true. He is an expert, having studies Lyme Disease since 1985. Perhaps he is right, but he certainly does not provide the evidence. 
Professor Telford’s article is the sort of attempted “debunking" that gives the mainstream media a bad name. Score one for the “conspiracy theorists"
End of three parts

part 2:
2. "Bitten: The Secret History of Lyme Disease and Biological Weapons by Kris Newby. (2019). Quoting from the Amazon page on this book, A riveting thriller reminiscent of The Hot Zone, this true story dives into the mystery surrounding one of the most controversial and misdiagnosed conditions of our time—Lyme disease—and of Willy Burgdorfer, the man who discovered the microbe behind it, revealing his secret role in developing bug-borne biological weapons, and raising terrifying questions about the genesis of the epidemic of tick-borne diseases affecting millions of Americans today. 
3. "The Nazi Hydra in America: Suppressed History of a Century", (2008) Glen Yeadon and John Hawkins describe how, during WWII, Traub had served as lab chief at Insel Riems, a secret Nazi biological warfare facility in the Baltic Sea. Working directly under Heinrich Himmler, feared head of the SS, the Nazi Party’s paramilitary arm, Traub’s role apparently involved packaging weaponized foot-and-mouth disease virus for dispersal from a Luftwaffe bomber onto cattle and reindeer in Russia. Professor Telford makes no effort to debunk any of these books. In 1993 Newsday, a paper published for Long Islanders, published an article exposing Plum Island’s role in Lyme disease. Professor Telford omits mention of it. Then there is a 30 minute documentary "FTR #480 Plum Island, Lyme Disease and the Erich Traub File” at this link.https://spitfirelist.com/for-the-record/ftr-480-plum-island-lyme-disease-and-the-erich-traub-file/ Among researchers who dispute the government denials are Eleana Cook, Marjorie Tietjen, and Patricia Doyle. Telford does not mention them or their work, which is easy to find on the Internet.
to be continued subject to WaPo moderation

Professor Telford receives Federal funding for his research and so has a clear conflict of interest. The US government has consistently denied that Plum Island ever did secret military research on Lyme disease. That is what the government does when evidence is classified. The so-called “conspiracy theories” that Professor Telford alludes to include a great deal of evidence, none of which he even attempts to address. The claims he dismisses as “ conspiracy theories” say that Eric Taub, a former Nazi scientist who came to the US after World War II under Operation Paperclip, had done biowarfare research for the Germans on tick-borne diseases. He became director of the Plum Island facility, which was completed in 1954. In 1975 an outbreak of Lyme disease in Lyme CT occurred, just a few miles north of Plum Island. At least three books have been written about the connections among Lyme Disease, Plum Island, and Eric Taub. 1. "Lab 25: The Disturbing Story of the Government's Secret Plum Island Germ Laboratory by lawyer Michael C. Carroll. (2004). "Reviewing Carroll’s book at the time, the New York Times described how it was based on seven years’ research and hundreds of hours spent studying U.S. government documents and interviewing scientists, workers, government officials, journalists, and other individuals involved with or knowledgeable about the PIADC laboratory. Interestingly, Carroll said he originally had the cooperation of the U.S. government’s Agriculture and Homeland Security departments and was even given permission to visit Plum Island six times in 2001 and 2002. ”When they discovered where I was going and that I was going to write the truth, they pulled the plug and cut me off on the grounds of national security,” he said." 
to be continued, subject to WaPo policies

Sam Telford, the author, please remove the reference to "deer ticks" in your article.  There's no such thing.  It's called a black-legged tick.  
W. Post Photo Editor:  Remove the image of a deer from the head of this article.  Why falsely associate deer with lyme disease when it's small animals like mice and birds who spread this disease, not deer.  Deer actually help cut down on ticks by swallowing them.  They help the problem, but don't contribute to it.  This article, however, is contributing to misinformation on deer and ticks at the same time.  Stop!  

Deer ARE associated with Lyme Disease, FYI.  We, those of us infected with Lyme, refer to them as "Tick Taxis" as they are the means of spreading the disease from mice, to deer, to humans.  Do a little research, would you?

The problem is different from what you understand. Lyme disease is often difficult to diagnose with laboratory testing, and it appears many more people are being diagnosed with the disease, and likely without true and correct positive confirmation of the bacterium. What could be happening is not a bacterium accidentally released from the government, because you are right, that is ridiculous. But there are (likely undetectable) energy based weapons that can mimic or create biological symptoms in the human body, which could appear similar to Lyme disease. A rogue government could be using these weapons covertly against our "human capital" in order to hurt us from the inside by affecting our health and ability to function and be productive, and in order to increase healthcare and other costs. This would be but one way they would be attacking us.

What knowledge do you have of all the military weapons of this government or any other? Are you not aware of ANY energy based weapons (some are public knowledge)? And don't you think there might be some clandestine weapons out there of which you might not have knowledge? Wouldn't it make sense for a government to try to attack us in this way if they were smaller, perhaps less powerful, or even just to compete in an unfair way? I do have evidence and reason to consider this idea, but you would likely not believe it, because you don't have enough knowledge. 

It may not come as a surprise, but the nuttiness goes way, way deeper on this topic, something the author of the piece chose not to delve into. If you want to throw up a little, I encourage reading this excellent piece in New York Magazine's 'The Cut' exposing the hellish cult that identifies themselves as sufferers of nebulously defined 'chronic Lyme Disease.'

https://www.thecut.com/2019/07/what-happens-when-lyme-disease-becomes-an-identity.html

They're anti-vaxx meets Goop meets new age spiritual woo. In other words, they are themselves a societal version of an engineered bioweapon.

I think the reason people are so willing to buy into this theory is that the CDC and medical community are complicit in marginalizing many of the significant developments of this disease in the past few decades.  Their dismissal of long-term Lyme cases, their steadfast claims that a 30-day round of antibiotics is effective for all cases and their lack of acknowledgement of the wide-spread nature of the disease geographically being a few key examples.
When the medical authority on Lyme is so clearly polarized or unwilling to adapt to the facts in front of them, people are left fishing for answers.  This theory, as crazy as it is, might be more appealing than the sad truth of the hubris of this 'authority' and the simple but powerful economic pressures of the insurance industry.

I have no opinion on whether Lyme disease was engineered as a biological warfare agent. Governments, including the U.S. government, do conduct research into such things, and governments, including the U.S. government, have harmed their own citizens for the sake of research. Documented cases of this include:
—the Tuskegee syphilis experiments conducted by the Public Health Service (which became the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) from 1932 - 1972 (which ended only after the Associated Press reported on the 50-year study, which detailed how black American men's bodies were degraded by untreated syphilis); 
—CIA mind-control studies on unwitting hospital patients at Washington, D.C. university hospitals, which were disclosed by detailed Washington Post reporting in 1977; 
—experiments that infected unwitting black Americans with cancers at hospitals; and others.
^Many if not most American people would assume these are conspiracy theories if they were not so well documented. These sorts of things happen.
Whether or not American scientists ever experimented with Lyme disease as a bioweapon is frankly irrelevant to the far more important concern that Lyme disease today is an epidemic that destroys lives, and which is vastly underreported and under-invested in by National Institutes of Health research allocations. Our government and some national news outlets, which carry anti-Lyme patient bias, are not helping with this.
Lyme disease is not a politically partisan concern. It's a public health concern—a rapidly spreading infectious disease that may also trigger autoimmune dysfunction—that is not well understood and the victims of which are not fairly or adequately represented in the news media. The Washington Post should not publish articles that mislead readers into believing anything about this disease is a partisan Republican or Democratic issue. It's a disease that is devastating the Washington, D.C. region and should be addressed adequately.

I welcome that the government is looking into this; the idea that we should categorically dismiss claims of governmental misdeeds as "conspiracy theories" is ludicrous considering all the terrible things they have done.  It is especially ironic considering the etymology of the phrase "conspiracy theory".


In fact, Lyme Disease is very old. The 5,000 year old "ice man" had it.
https://www.livescience.com/18704-oldest-case-lyme-disease-spotted-iceman-mummy.html

The thing is, when you know sufferers from this dreadful disease, it's hard to understand why the Establishment is not pulling out all the stops to get a cure. Talking to people with the disease, it's clear that it's hard to get disability and medical insurance coverage for Lyme. You have to use one of the subsidiary diseases that Lymes bring to the patient.

There IS a vaccine, but not currently certified.  Not one of the best, but very good.  A friend who is a world respected infectious disease expert has asked his dog's vet to administer one of them (same effect for humans as for canines) but the vet has refused.  For him to ask for one (he and other family members have had Lyme disease several times over a couple decades) with his degree of analysis and knowledge of things infectious, makes me wonder when we will get the FDA to re-certify the vaccine.

Careful, the WaPo censors are itchy over this thread,,,,

Plum Island became a military research & development center for animal pathogens shortly after WW2.
It was one of several areas affected by Operation Paperclip which facilitated German technology transfer to the US. 
The German scientist of interest, who selected the site, was Erich Traub:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erich_Traub
Traub returned to Germany after the lab was operational. What happened afterwards is described in:
https://www.amazon.com/Lab-257-Disturbing-Governments-Laboratory/dp/0060011416
The US Army ran the Lab awhile before turning it over to the US department of agriculture.
The USDA lacked the funds to maintain it. Mishaps resulted in loss of containment. 
70 Long Island (Peking) duck farms were soon lost. Vacant property led to RealEstate opportunities. 
More homes in the Hamptons. 
Attempts to reestablish Duck farming have been failing:
https://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2014/nov/1/duck-farming-fading-away-on-new-yorks-long-island/
It was later noted that Plum Island is on a migratory flyway (eee), and that deer swim.
The first indication of Lyme disease was in Lyme, CT (closest mainland point). It spread gradually from there.  A similar fate befell the Long Island lobster industry.
https://undark.org/article/ghost-fishing-long-island-coast/
Good reasons for eventually shutting down the lab and for keeping people from it. 
The current status of superfund sites in the US:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Superfund_sites
We live in a complex world, shaped by the US military industrial complex that President Eisenhower warned us about.  A helpfup book for understanding how the world has changed since WW2 (note the authors): 
https://www.amazon.com/House-War-Pentagon-Disastrous-American/dp/0618872019
The proper study of mankind is man.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/An_Essay_on_Man

Lyme disease exists in Europe and Asia as well. The Ötzi, Iceman's remains found frozen and well preserved, lived between 3400 and 3100 BCE is believed to have had Lyme Disease. 

You can treat Lyme IF you catch it early enough. Problem is, the 'bullseye rash' doesn't always present, and then it can be difficult to know if you've been bitten. And if you don't kill it early,  you can be stuck with it for life iirc.

I used to pass Plum Island on a regular basis.  Maybe a dozen times a year.  Of course everyone tells the story about maybe that's where Lyme disease came from.
It probably wouldn't have been so easy to throw that story out there if there hadn't been a history of the Military doing things like introducing a flu bug into the air at the Golden Gate to study wind distribution of biological agents.  Unfortunately some elderly died on that one.  At least the test they ran at Dugway in Utah only killed sheep.
Denying those incidents and making people spend huge amounts of time investigating them didn't help their cause.

Not a flu virus, but two kinds of bacteria. For more information, see Operation Sea-Spray.

Thanks.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Sea-Spray

Probably because not all instances of Lyme disease are "easily treatable with two weeks of antibiotics". There is also a knowledge gap among some doctors who fail to diagnose those displaying the symptoms of Lyme disease. This knowledge gap is accentuated by the fact that the current standard test for Lyme only detects it correctly 53% of the time. On a positive note there are medical centers like the one in Boothbay Harbor Maine that have recently developed a new test that is over 90% accurate.

Nazi scientist Erich Traub’s specialty was infecting insects with diseases. During WWII, he developed biological warfare to be directed against animals in the Soviet Union such as infecting cattle and reindeer with foot-and-mouth disease.When he was brought into the US under Project Paperclip, he worked at Lab 257 on Plum Island or as Hannibal Lecktor called it, “Anthrax Island.” He continued his research until the US military became concerned about having to feed millions of people in the Soviet Union if it destroyed their food animals. Ticks were released on the island and artillery rounds containing bio-warheads were test fired. Trump wanted to to buy the island and develop a “really beautiful, world-class golf course” on it, but couldn’t because the island was under quarantine. Research has moved to Manhattan, KS, where the focus will be biosafety level 3 agriculture (BSL-3Ag) research on dangerous livestock diseases such as African swine fever and foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and will focus its BSL-4 research on such deadly pathogens as the Hendra and Nipah viruses, which are zoonotic pathogens that can be transmitted from animals to humans and for which no treatment is available. What better place to test deadly diseases than in America’s heartland. To accommodate the DHS’ request to bring the live FMD virus to the mainland, Congress first had to change US law that restricted use of the live FMD virus to coastal islands.

Thanks for trying to educate the closed minded folks on this thread.

Let's look at this from a numerical perspective.  5% of the population has an IQ less than 75.  So, given that the US has 300,000,000 people , we have 15,000,000 with an IQ less than 75.  Lets say 80% are teenagers or older, that's stll 12,000,000 people.
So I'm not really surprised that this conspiracy nonsense is out there when we have millions and millions of these people all on the internet reading made up garbage that normal people know is bogus.

Well, I got Lyme disease in Europe, some 4500 miles from Washington D.C. The tick type is (or in this case was) native to Russia. Lyme disease is not a new thing. It's been around a large number of years. 
So, if it is a biological weapon then a) Russia has it and b) it must have been developed in the stone age. 


I have had Lyme disease twice, each time caught early and treated early with a two-week course of antibiotics.  The first infection, 17 years ago, was like a terrible case of the flu, but I really only had two bad days.  The second infection, six years ago, came with another nice bulleye rash--or annular erythema, if you want to be technical--but the other symptoms were no bother at all.

Speaking of Lyme disease and conspiracy theories, it's no small irony that a relatively effective vaccine against Lyme disease was pulled off the market as a consequence of the misleading theories of anti-vaxxers   https://www.historyofvaccines.org/content/articles/history-lyme-disease-vaccine  

Although stories usually pointed out that no study or research to date had shown that the vaccine could cause arthritis, headlines on the same articles tended to present the issue pessimistically: “Concerns Grow Over Reactions to Lyme Shots,” “Lyme Vaccine May Cause Problems,” and “Lyme Disease Vaccine’s Safety Is Questioned” all appeared in 2000 and 2001.

Soon, anti-Lyme vaccine groups were formed with the goal of ending the vaccine’s production. A class-action lawsuit was filed, asking SmithKline Beecham to update the vaccine’s label to include the possibility that it could cause arthritis.[x] Other individual lawsuits claimed that the vaccine had caused arthritis and various other adverse effects.

In 2002, in response to low vaccine uptake, public concern about adverse effects, and class action lawsuits, SmithKline Beecham withdrew the vaccine from the market despite the fact that both pre- and post-licensure safety data showed no difference in the incidence of chronic arthritis between those who received the vaccine and those who had not. Today there are no vaccines available to prevent Lyme disease, and it is unlikely that another will be developed and licensed in the near future – not because of a lack of interest or problems with development, but because of the precedent set by the first vaccine’s ultimate failure in the court of public opinion.

How many people today have suffered unnecessarily from Lyme disease who could have been immunized by the vaccine? Conspiracy theories can and do cause real harm.

As a scientist, you may be curious enough to read the well-researched and written book that directly addresses this issue. The author is a scientist who met several times with Burgdorfer and had access to his research from the mid-20th century.
https://www.amazon.com/Bitten-History-Disease-Biological-Weapons/dp/006289627X

"Bitten" is an excellent book.  The author wrote an open letter to Telford in late July.  WaPo should not have published this article without any checking.

You are thinking like an individual soldier might.  Not a military strategist.  If you are a German scientist working for the Nazis you want a weapon that will incapacitate the population in a way that they starve to death without being able to identify the cause.

This article appeared in the June 2007 issue of Yankee Magazine.  I would highly recommend anyone who is interested in the history of lyme disease to read it. 
https://newengland.com/yankee-magazine/living/new-england-environment/lyme-wars/

The scientific evidence that the disease was present in old tick samples from multiple locations is all that is needed to disprove the conspiracy theory. Add to that the sequence analysis of multiple specimens that prove that the populations in separated geographic regions are genetically distinguishable as separate populations is further conclusive proof that there was not an engineered release. 

The Lyme disease that was present many years before the 1950s is not the same as the strain that escaped from Plum Island.
https://rense.com/general69/lyme.htm

DARPA is a military agency, but it has subsidized a lot of outstanding research, and it, not Al Gore, created the Internet (originally called ARPANET).

I have Lyme and never had a tick burrow in. Supposedly the bacteria is in the fluid that is used by the tick to thin the blood so that it can suck it out. Yet somehow I got Lyme and symptoms of other biological organisms. I suspect that I got it from a mosquito bite which does exactly the same thing as a tick except it flies instead of crawling. Depending what the tick or mosquito bit previously to you, it can pass numerous other organisms like babesia, anaplasma, mycoplasma, bartonella, erlichia, all of which make you sick. The blood tests aren't good enough at LabCorp or Quest. Anyone suspecting they have Lyme needs to get their blood tested by Igenix in Palo Alto, CA. The Lyme bacteria has been around for a long time and they found that the Iceman in the Swiss Alps had the Lyme bacteria in him. People need to become familiar with the symptoms and their own health. The CDC guidelines were bogus when I got diagnosed two years ago. No target rash and their numbers for the states were wrong. My personal physician told me I was wasting my money. I had to pay the lab fee out of pocket but at least I got the correct lab results. 30 days on Doxycycline got rid of the symptoms but it started coming back 2 weeks later. Find a doctor that works with Lyme. 

A relative of mine described a coworker who had weird symptoms that affected their job performance. After years of fruitless testing, the person finally got the (correct) diagnosis of Lyme, and got cleared up the same as you. None of that person's symptoms matched what is traditionally looked for as Lyme's disease, making the diagnosis take that much longer.

That mummy that was found in the glacier in the Alps had evidence of Lymes bacteria. 
https://www.livescience.com/18704-oldest-case-lyme-disease-spotted-iceman-mummy.html

Just a few of the military designations for biological agents - some dating back to the Great War:
Biological agents 
Mycotic Biological

OC - Coccidioides mycosis 

Bacterial Biological Agents  

Biological agent 
N - anthrax 
TR - anthrax 
LE - plague 
UL - tularemia (schu S4) 
SR - tularemia 
JT - tularemia (425) 
HO - cholera 
Y - bacterial dysentery 
TQ - listeriosis 

Rickettsial Biological Agents 
RI - rocky mountain spotted fever 
UY - rocky mountain spotted fever 
OU - Q fever 
YE - human typhus 

Biological Vectors

AP = Aedes aegypti mosquito 

Biological Toxins

Toxin X - botulinum toxin 
AXR - partially purified botulinum toxin 
A W - ricin toxin 
WA - ricin toxin 
UC - staphyloccocal enterotoxin 
B PG - staphyloccocal enterotoxin 

https://rense.com/general69/lyme.htm  may help you

Many conspiracy theories turn out to be true...

Maybe it will turn something up even if it is unrelated to Lyme disease.  They have done so many immoral things that I worry that they continued with biowarfare after 1969.  Actually, we know they did from Verne Lyon's book, Eyes on Havana. The CIA infected Cuba with Swine Flu in 1970. It affected livestock not humans but was an economic disaster for Cuba.   The strain could have also mutated to affect humans but apparently they didn't understand that or didn't care.

And in William Blum's book Killing Hope he says that a Cuban exile in 1984 testified that the 1981 Dengue outbreak was caused by American biowarfare. (Blum 189).

https://www.latinamericanstudies.org/arocena.htm  Look at the testimony of Eduardo Victor Aroncena Perez.

This is an interesting and well- written anonymous piece from a source I don't recognize. My sources are published books, and trial testimony. I suggest you read them.
https://www.amazon.com/gp/aw/d/1476670900/ref=tmm_pap_title_0?ie=UTF8&qid=1565574043&sr=8-1
https://www.amazon.com/Killing-Hope-Military-Interventions-Updated/dp/1783601779/ref=mp_s_a_1_1?keywords=killing+hope+william+blum&qid=1565574143&s=gateway&sprefix=killing+hope&sr=8-1
Buy paperback or hardcover. 

Not a conspiracy theory....
https://rense.com/general69/lyme.htm

People, think about evolution
From a standpoint of a virus/disease that can be weaponized, you want something that can be easily spread from person to person and is contagious before symptoms develop (so people go about their activities and spread the virus). 
Tick-borne diseases do not fit into this criteria. 
They are not spread by people. 

You're incorrect. There is ample evidence that Lyme disease is contracted in utero (how else can one explain an infant being born with the infection?) and is sexually transmitted. I've been sick with Lyme and related co-infections for almost a decade and stay informed of current research.

@ trainer: He talking about infection spreading from person to person for a bioweapon. In utero doesn't count. It's been known for years about in utero spread of Lyme and other infections.

The ‘12 Monkeys’ sort of plague is the one I would worry about, not one intended to disable, quickly, soldiers. Spreads quickly. Slow to develop. Always fatal. A civilization killer. 

Of course these folks were the ones who deliberately released biowarfare test agents into the New York subway system, so deliberate release isn't out of the question, even if accidental release were.

Yes, it is out of the question.

Had there been a lab strain, particularly one engineered to be more transmissible, that escaped within the last 50 years, there would be greater genetic similarity between these three geographic populations. There is no evidence for a recent single source — such as a release from a lab — for Lyme disease spirochetes.

This would apply for deliberate release as well.    The strains in all 3 areas of the country would be much more genetically similar than they are.

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"No, Lyme disease is not an escaped military bioweapon, despite what conspiracy theorists say" was published Aug 11 in the Washington Post. Are they right?

https://www.washingtonpost.com/health/no-lyme-diease-is-not-an-escaped-military-bioweapon-despite-what-conspiracy-theorists-say/2019/08/09/5bbd85fa-afe4-11e9-8e77-03b30bc29f64_story.html

Profile photo for Chad Edwards Brown

Chad Edwards Brown, former Wall St. Financial/equity Analyst & Hedge Fund Mgr (1975-2010)

Professor Sam Telford of Tufts University argues “No, Lyme disease is not an escaped military bioweapon, despite what conspiracy theoretics say.” Professor Telford receives Federal funding for his research and so has a clear conflict of interest. The US government has consistently denied that Plum Island ever did secret military research on Lyme disease. That is what the government does when evidence is classified.

The so-called “conspiracy theories” that Professor Telford alludes to include a great deal of evidence, none of which he even attempts to address.

The claims he dismisses as “ conspiracy theories” say that Eric Taub, a former Nazi scientist who came to the US after World War II under Operation Paperclip, had done biowarfare research for the Germans on tick-borne diseases. He was twice invited to became director of the Plum Island facility, which was completed in 1954. In 1975 an outbreak of Lyme disease in Lyme CT occurred, just a few miles north of Plum Island.

At least three books have been written about the connections among Lyme Disease, Plum Island, and Eric Taub.

1. "Lab 257: The Disturbing Story of the Government's Secret Plum Island Germ Laboratory by lawyer Michael C. Carroll. (2004). "Reviewing Carroll’s book at the time, the New York Times described how it was based on seven years’ research and hundreds of hours spent studying U.S. government documents and interviewing scientists, workers, government officials, journalists, and other individuals involved with or knowledgeable about the PIADC laboratory. Interestingly, Carroll said he originally had the cooperation of the U.S. government’s Agriculture and Homeland Security departments and was even given permission to visit Plum Island six times in 2001 and 2002. ”When they discovered where I was going and that I was going to write the truth, they pulled the plug and cut me off on the grounds of national security,” he said."

2. "Bitten: The Secret History of Lyme Disease and Biological Weapons by Kris Newby. (2019). Quoting from the Amazon page on this book, A riveting thriller reminiscent of The Hot Zone, this true story dives into the mystery surrounding one of the most controversial and misdiagnosed conditions of our time—Lyme disease—and of Willy Burgdorfer, the man who discovered the microbe behind it, revealing his secret role in developing bug-borne biological weapons, and raising terrifying questions about the genesis of the epidemic of tick-borne diseases affecting millions of Americans today.

3. "The Nazi Hydra in America: Suppressed History of a Century", (2008) Glen Yeadon and John Hawkins describe how, during WWII, Traub had served as lab chief at Insel Riems, a secret Nazi biological warfare facility in the Baltic Sea. Working directly under Heinrich Himmler, feared head of the SS, the Nazi Party’s paramilitary arm, Traub’s role apparently involved packaging weaponized foot-and-mouth disease virus for dispersal from a Luftwaffe bomber onto cattle and reindeer in Russia.

Professor Telford makes no effort to debunk any of these books. In 1993 Newsday, a paper published for Long Islanders, published an article exposing Plum Island’s role in Lyme disease. Professor Telford omits mention of it.

Then there is a 30 minute documentary "FTR #480 Plum Island, Lyme Disease and the Erich Traub File” at this link. FTR #480 Plum Island, Lyme Disease and the Erich Traub File

Among researchers who dispute the government denials are Eleana Cook, Marjorie Tietjen, and Patricia Doyle. Telford does not mention them or their work, which is easy to find on the Internet.

On what then does Telford base his claim that Lyme disease escaping from Plum Island is a “conspiracy theory,” and therefore untrue? His case seems to be limited to these three (extremely weak) points.

* He points out that the disease was found in ticks that predate 1954. The conspiracy theorists agree. Their point is that a more virulent strain escaped Plum Island in the mid-1970s.

* He notes that Lyme disease is a poor choice for a bioweapon because its incubation takes a week and is not fatal, hence it would not be used to disable target soldiers. Again, that does nothing to refute any "conspiracy theory.” The claim is that the Nazis were developing a bioweapon to disable the Soviet population during World War II. No one has claimed Lyme disease is suitable for use against soldiers in battle.

* Telford argues that Willy Burgdorfer did not publish his paper in Science until 1982, describing the Lyme disease mechanism. Therefore the earliest the military could have begun research was 1981, long after the Plum Island facility began operations in 1954. Also, since President Nixon outlawed biowarfare research in 1969, it is impossible that the military would have even considered such research in 1981.

Beyond those three points, the article simply asserts that “conspiracy theories” are not true. He is an expert, having studied Lyme Disease since 1985. Perhaps he is right, but he certainly does not provide the evidence.

Professor Telford’s article is the sort of attempted “debunking" that gives the mainstream media a bad name. Score one for the “conspiracy theorists"

===

ICYMI:

New Book Exposes Secret Lyme Disease & Bioweapons Link

UNDER OUR SKIN Director Andy Abrahams Wilson interviews Kris Newby, author of “Bitten: The Secret History of Lyme Disease and Biological Weapons.”

May 1, 2019 – UnderOurSkin.com

===

 

US Government Admits 
Lyme Disease Is 
A Bioweapon


By Lymerayja
1-7-6
 
The existence of the Lyme disease epidemic is officially covered up in the UK, its myriad presentations routinely misdiagnosed as everything from "M.E." to MS to hypochondria. This is the first admission by a US government body that the cause is an incapacitating biowar agent:
 
SAN ANTONIO (AP) -- The $10.6 million Margaret Batts Tobin Laboratory Building will provide a 22,000-square-foot facility to study such diseases as anthrax, tularemia, cholera, lyme disease, desert valley fever and other parasitic and fungal diseases. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention identified these diseases as potential bioterrorism agents.".
 
https://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/10039154/
 
So, for the first time, a US government body admits that Lyme disease is a biological warfare agent. This is the reason that hundreds of thousands of men, women and children around the world have been left to rot with wrong diagnoses, or have had their Lyme disease acknowledged but been told that it is an "easily-treated" disease, given 3 weeks' antibiotics, then told to shove off when their symptoms carried on after that.
 
In Britain the existence of the epidemic is denied completely, and virtually no effort made to warn or educate the public about the dangers of ticks, which carry the bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi.
 
The Borrelia genus has been a subject of biowar experimentation at least as far back as WW2, when the infamous Japanese Unit 731, which tortured and experimented on live prisoners, studied it.
 
The reality is, Lyme disease is for many a chronic, horrendous, incapacitating disease producing crippling fatigue, constant pain, loss of memory, possible paralysis, psychosis, blindness and even death.
 
It was an ideal biowar agent because it evades detection on routine tests, has an enormous range of different presentations, and can mimic everything from ADHD to multiple sclerosis to carpal tunnel syndrome to rheumatoid arthritis to chronic fatigue syndrome (M.E.) to lupus to schizophrenia. Enemy medical staff would never know what had hit them, nor even that ONE illness had hit their population, rather than an unexplained rise in dozens of known conditions.
 
Honest doctors and scientists who tried to treat or research Lyme disease according to ethical principles have been viciously persecuted by government-backed organisations in the US, Europe and elsewhere. Many specialists in the US were threatened with loss of their license or had anonymous, false allegations sent to the medical board, which tied them up in mountains of paperwork and legal fees...some were forced out of medicine or even driven to suicide.
 
Instead, medical disinfo agents, most of whom have a background in military/biowarfare units, such as Dr Allen Steere, Mark Klempner, Philip Baker, Edward McSweegan, David Dennis, Alan Barbour etc were enabled to assume top positions in Lyme research , CDC, NIH etc from where they issued false information , covering up the true seriousness and chronic nature of the disease, and comdemned untold numbers to a living hell.
 
Please help Lyme patients publicise this scandal, which has caused suffering on a massive scale. Contact me by email if you are interested in helping.
 
Thank you.
 
Lisa
 
Lymerayja
e-mail:
Homepage: https://www.lyme-rage.info
 
https://www.indymedia.org.uk/en/2005/11/328067.html
 
 
 
Patricia A. Doyle, DVM, PhD - Bus Admin, Tropical Agricultural Economics
Please visit my "Emerging Diseases" message board at:
 
https://www.clickitnews.com/ubbthreads/postlist.php?
Cat=&Board=emergingdiseases
Also my new website:
 
https://drpdoyle.tripod.com/
Zhan le Devlesa tai sastimasa
Go with God and in Good Health
 

https://rense.com/general69/lyme.htm

===

NOW BACK TO REAL LIFE:

Military Experiments on Biting Insects 

By Dilyana Gaytandzhieva - 15. January 2018

Entomological warfare is a type of biological warfare that uses insects to transmit diseases. The Pentagon has allegedly performed such entomological tests in Georgia and Russia. 

mosquito

Biting Flies in Georgia 

In 2014 The Lugar Center was equipped with an insect facility and launched a project titled 'Raising Awareness about Barcoding of Sand Flies in Georgia and Caucasus'. The project covered a larger geographic area outside of Georgia - the Caucasus region. In 2014-2015 Phlebotomine sand fly species were collected under another project, 'Surveillance Work on Acute Febrile Illness' and all (female) sand flies were tested to determine their infectivity rate. A third project, also including sand flies collection, studied the characteristics of their salivary glands

A biting fly

A biting fly in a bathroom in Tbilisi, Georgia

As a result, Tbilisi has been infested with biting flies since 2015. These biting insects live indoors, in bathrooms, all year long, which was not the typical behavior of these species in Georgia previously (normally the Phlebotomine fly season in Georgia is exceptionally short - from June to September). Local people complain of being bitten by these newly-appeared flies while naked in their bathrooms. They also have a strong resistance to cold and can survive even in sub-zero temperatures in the mountains. 

Biting Flies in Dagestan, Russia 

Since the start of the Pentagon project in 2014, flies similar to those in Georgia have appeared in neighboring Dagestan (Russia). According to local people, they bite and cause rashes. Their breeding habitats are house drains. 

Lugar Center map

biting flies

Flies in Georgia (on the left). The same fly in Dagestan (on the right)

Flies from the Phlebotomine family carry dangerous parasites in their saliva which they transmit through a bite to humans. The disease, which these flies carry, is of high interest to the Pentagon. In 2003 during the US invasion of Iraq, American soldiers were severely bitten by sand flies and contracted Leishmoniasis. The disease is native to Iraq and Afghanistan, and if left untreated the acute form of Leishmoniasis can be fatal. 

A 1967 US Army report 'Arthropods of medical importance in Asia and the European USSR' lists all local insects, their distribution and the diseases that they carry. Biting flies, which live in drains, are also listed in the document. Their natural habitat, though, is the Philippines, not Georgia or Russia. 
 

US Army material

'Arthropods of medical importance in Asia and the European USSR', US Army report, 1967

sand flies

Operation Whitecoat: Infected Flies Tested to Bite Humans 

In 1970 and 1972, Sand Fly Fever tests were performed on humans according to a declassified US Army report - 'US Army Activities in the US, Biological Warfare Programs, 1977, vol. II, p. 203'. During Operation Whitecoat, volunteers were exposed to bites by infected sand flies. Operation Whitecoat was a bio-defense medical research program carried out by the US Army at Fort Detrick, Maryland, between 1954 and 1973. 

Despite the official termination of the US bio-weapons program, in 1982 USAMRIID performed an experiment to see if sand flies and mosquitoes could be vectors of Rift Valley Virus, Dengue, Chikungunya and Eastern Equine Encephalitis - viruses which the US Army researched for their potential as bio-weapons

Killer Insects 

A. Aegypti

Aedes Aegypti

The Pentagon has a long history in using insects as vectors for diseases. According to a partially declassified 1981 US Army report, American bio warfare scientists carried out a number of experiments on insects. These operations were part of US Entomological Warfare under the Program for Biological Weapons of the US. 

The Pentagon: How to Kill 625,000 People For Just $0.29 Cost Per Death 

A US Army report in 1981 compared two scenarios - 16 simultaneous attacks on a city by A. Aegypti mosquitoes, infected with Yellow Fever, and Tularemia aerosol attack, and assessed their effectiveness in terms of cost and casualties. 

Yellow Fever memo

cost for death

Operation Big Itch: Field tests were performed to determine coverage patterns and survivability of the tropical rat flea Xenopsylla cheopis for use as a disease vector in biological warfare. 

Operation Big Buzz: 1 million A. Aegypti mosquitoes were produced, 1/3 were placed in munitions and dropped from aircraft, or dispersed on the ground. The mosquitoes survived the airdrop and actively sought out human blood. 

history of field testing

Evaluation of Entomological Warfare as a potential Danger to the US and European NATO nations, US Army, March 1981 Report

Operation May Day: Aedes Aegypti mosquitoes were dispersed through ground-based methods in Georgia, USA, during a US Army operation codenamed May Day

Operation May Day

Parts of the 1981 US Army report such as the "Mass production of Aedes Aegypti" have not been declassified, potentially meaning that the project is still ongoing. 

Aedes Aegypti, also known as yellow fever mosquito, have been widely used in US military operations. The same species of mosquitoes are alleged to be the vectors of dengue, chikungunya and the Zika virus, which causes genetic malformations in newborns 

Operation Bellweather: The US Army Chemical Research and Development Command, Biological Weapons Branch, studied outdoor mosquito biting activity in a number of field tests at Dugway Proving Ground, Utah, in 1960. Virgin female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, which had been starved, were tested upon troops out in the open air. 
 

Operation Bellweather

For reference: OutdoorMosquito Biting Activity Studies,Project Bellweather I, 1960, Technical Report, US Army, Dugway Proving Ground 

Military Experiments With Tropical Mosquitoes and Ticks in Georgia 

Such species of mosquitoes and fleas (studied in the past under the US Entomological Warfare Program) have also been collected in Georgia and tested at the Lugar Center. 

Under the DTRA project 'Virus and Other Arboviruses in Georgia' in 2014, the never-before-seen tropical mosquito Aedes albopictus was detected for the first time and after an absence of decades (60 years), the existence of Aedes Aegypti mosquito was confirmed in west Georgia
 

Aedes Albopictus

Aedes Albopictus is a vector of many viral pathogens, Yellow fever virus, Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika.

These tropical mosquitoes Aedes Albopictus, having never been seen before in Georgia, have also been detected in neighboring Russia (Krasnodar) and Turkey. According to data provided by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, their spread is unusual for this part of the world. 
 

Aedes Albopictus distribution

Click to see the full-size image

Aedes Aegypti mosquitoes have been distributed only in Georgia, southern Russia and northern Turkey. They were detected for the first time in 2014 after the start of the Pentagon program at the Lugar Center. 
 

Aedes Aegypti Mosquitoes

Click to see the full-size image

Under another DTRA project, 'Epidemiology and Ecology of Tularemia in Georgia' (2013-2016), 6,148 ground ticks were collected; 5,871 were collected off cattle and 1,310 fleas and 731 ticks were caught. In 2016 a further 21,590 ticks were collected and studied at the Lugar Center

READ MORE:

 

Comment:

Joan

 

 

 

 

Joan

I am only through a portion of this article, the reason for my post is I noted that they are interested in "biting" insects as a vector of infection. 

As a Lyme disease sufferer for the past 5 years, and with testing, have been infected with Lyme strain of Borrelia Afezeli and Borrelia Garinii, this was diagnosed through an independent lab in the US. 

The video below is a short presentation by Dr Horowitz that explains the implications of Lyme. I also noted that one of the organisms mentioned in the documents, is for Bartonella, this is a co-infection of Lyme, causes neurological issues, and as I understand it is also difficult to treat. 

I could go one forever about the devastating effects of this disease, it has cost me thousands in treatment. I retired early from my job, and I am not cured, just maintained at times. 

It is my opinion that any person with chronic disease or neurological issues presented to their physician should be automatically tested for Lyme, also if cardiac rhythm disruption presents in a younger individual. Is it a blood borne disease and can be transmitted to the fetus and sexual transmission has been documented, hence the Pentagon warning not to have sex with persons from abroad.

The sad thing is, the testing is so poor it is a joke, and as Dr. Horowitz has stated, many will never be diagnosed. 

So I guess it begs the question from me, what is the US intending to do with all this research, in the middle of Eurasia?

Dr. Richard Horowitz interview from the documentary "Bullseye" (2018)

•May 22, 2018

 

Lyme4 Channel

Dr. Richard Horowitz describes the story and the controversy about Lyme disease, test/diagnose, treatment and the situation worldwide incl. China, Europe and Scandinavia as well as the consequences now, and in the future, for the individual patient and sociol-economic. Political and medical disagreements that have led to today's situation where millions worldwide are being misdiagnosed, receive no or wrong treatment and live a life that in the worst cases scenario leads to premature death.

The clip is from the documentary "Bullseye", which can be seen here in its full length here: https://www.ldnresearchtrust.org/Lyme...​ "Bullseye"

Very informative documentary put out by the LDN Research Trust on Lyme/MSIDS. Dr. Horowitz, Dr. Toups, Dr. Schweig, Dr. Windham, Dr. Holtorf, & Dr. Schwarzback, speak on everything from testing, to diet, to inflammation, and how LDN can help patients.

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Lyme Disease Treatment Guidelines

Doctors discussing patient treatment

Clinical practice treatment guidelines are often used as reference by physicians for Lyme disease treatment and treatment of other tick-borne diseases. The LDA provides some links here for informational purposes only, as LDA does not make specific treatment recommendations. 

The only Lyme disease treatment guidelines that that were posted on the National Guidelines Clearinghouse (NGC), under the auspices of the US Department of Health & Human Services, are those adhering to newly revised National Academy of Medicine (NAM), formerly the Institute of Medicine (IOM), standards for guidelines: the International Lyme & Associated Diseases Society (ILADS) Lyme Guidelines, which address usefulness of antibiotic prophylaxis for tick bite, effectiveness of EM treatment, and antibiotics’ role in treatment of persistent Lyme disease symptoms. Note: Funding to support AHRQ’s NGC contract ended on July 16, 2018. View update here.

You can also checkout our handy infographic for treatment guidelines.

ILADS Guidelines for the Management of Lyme Disease

ILADS press release on the new guidelines

You can also review Chronic Lyme Disease: An Evidence-Based Definition by the ILADS Working Group 

Other Lyme treatment guidelines of note are those developed by one of the most recognized pioneers in Lyme treatment, Dr. Joseph Burrascano, now retired as a treating physician.

Link: Burrascano Diagnostic Hints & Guidelines* (16th edition, 10/2008)

Primary care physicians and other healthcare providers seeking continuing medical education (CME) credits for Lyme disease diagnosis and treatment can now approach the non-profit Partnership for Tick-Borne Diseases Education (PTDE) led by Elizabeth Maloney, MD, a physician with longstanding experience in speaking about tick-borne diseases, organizing Lyme disease conferences, and co-authoring treatment guidelines on Lyme and other tick-borne diseases.

Partnership for Tick-Borne Diseases Education, CME for Doctors

*In order to download this file, you will need Adobe Acrobat Reader 5.0 or greater. Please feel free to download the latest version for FREE. 


How CDC Surveillance Criteria Impact Lyme Treatment

The Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC) has a case definition for Lyme disease which is developed by the Council of State & Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE). This definition is meant to be used for surveillance purposes only, not for diagnosis. Surveillance is the collection, analysis and interpretation  of data for public health, e.g., comparing case numbers in different states: In 2015, PA is number one in Lyme case numbers, NJ is number two, etc. Below, is the current case definition used for surveillance.

Depending upon what state you live in, surveillance reporting of cases might be mandatory.  Some states require doctors to report cases that meet this surveillance criteria to the State, and some also require laboratories to report these Lyme cases or maybe only labs who do electronic reporting.

Doctors are not supposed to use the surveillance criteria to diagnose so Lyme treatment should not be based on surveillance criteria. Insurance companies should not base their payment on surveillance criteria.

Click here: Lyme Disease | 2017 Case Definition

 

DISCLAIMER: The LDA is not a medical organization. The LDA does not make specific recommendations for treatment. Whenever medical advice is needed, the services of a qualified medical provider should be sought. The guidelines on the web sites above are the products of the guidelines’ authors who are solely responsible for their content.